Difference between Public Bitcoin Address and Hash 160 ...

Tried to sweep a private key on coinomi and got this error

Got the error “default bitcoin HASH160 is not allowed”. Also the amount it showed also wasn’t the amount I expected.
Also tried to sweep the key on Electrum and also got an error as well.
Anyone know why this is happening?
submitted by ampmz to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

Can hash160 be reverse? /r/Bitcoin

Can hash160 be reverse? /Bitcoin submitted by ABitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

I have a question about Bitcoin addresses and hash160.

I don't know much about how Bitcoin works. But why the hash160 of these two address is equal?
https://blockchain.info/address/3LmzcN7f4M8dnvTnoHV3BF8n8i1mLE1udr
https://blockchain.info/address/1L5ygpdDWSpFhkmMgBpSkcmqzBj3m9jfPX
submitted by zant95 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Is a hash160 collision rare? /r/Bitcoin

Is a hash160 collision rare? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Convert multiple BTC address (base58) to hash160 /r/Bitcoin

Convert multiple BTC address (base58) to hash160 /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

The Future Of Bitcoin?

As a bit coin owner and supporter how do we make it quantum computer proof in the future? This is my ONLY concern with bitcoin in the long term?
submitted by tamerlane888 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Help with raw BCH transaction - Coinbase Multisig

Been trying to recover an old Coinbase BCH multisig wallet from back in the day and am running into errors after signing the transaction.

I followed this process to get the keys and auth script. http://blog.nerdbank.net/2017/08/how-to-sell-your-coinbase-multi-sig.html?m=1

Now that blockdozer.com is no longer up and running, these kinds of tools don't work like the original Coinb.in method - https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/6bsc5m/used_the_coinbase_multisig_vault_recovery_tool/
https://bitcoin.stackexchange.com/questions/64493/restore-block-io-multisig-wallet-in-electrum

My last attempt was to use cryptoapis.io on postman to publish the transaction.

When I decode my transaction I get this:
{
"payload": {
"txid": "c210d81d7421df8c29fef9d51ed4762c7c435e37e4e1f0d03da98d7a0ff53707",
"hash": "c210d81d7421df8c29fef9d51ed4762c7c435e37e4e1f0d03da98d7a0ff53707",
"size": 404,
"version": 1,
"locktime": 0,
"vin": [
{
"txid": "3f9c05b991e2da6a45447ad794d4a3ce83ecea4616d6865de51d823e44f6640f",
"sequence": 4294967293,
"vout": 0,
"scriptSig": {
"asm": "0 304402202c751ad9af37e4ac396e4c0517db3155996f4444912f9029c0aca48d7ebcbab102201a0b5abc1dd11377481c04f94bb61607bec3238e8efb85968fbafedf55160d09[ALL] 304502210084c5bab07dd33be1f080ff39994e42139902871d7cedbbd8aa9d1cf4b02d301f02204b275afd22b4ce3b4b60de4204aad2082ecd0bd37e1ac3c2d97dc23fc0d8d681[ALL] 5221038e0a77486457bb154806aa9696f9c09e6160961cf45978e24b3077a457c89b0a410456d2147c0ac68657840bedbc80de83ae2f3f29efb6bec8123ac5c54428e0c88f8c8c2a27fb2c32c9788e70595fc742fba6adc4dab15e8ab4a1a5d89e16025f5b4104c8b2bbb7147082f993f19a8d9641968903c9ad0be35c7e535dc307840a6af470d40eeada1ab8cffc661816423423e1cd1c867704fd436b3ebf25a330ca7eb10d53ae",
"hex": "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"
}
}
],
"vout": [
{
"value": "0.21192121",
"n": 0,
"scriptPubKey": {
"asm": "OP_DUP OP_HASH160 e6a79df19f5b69c87231e65005b3b39396368fa0 OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG",
"hex": "76a914e6a79df19f5b69c87231e65005b3b39396368fa088ac",
"reqSigs": 1,
"type": "pubkeyhash",
"addresses": [
"bitcoincash:qrn20803nadknjrjx8n9qpdnkwfevd505qpqsq8r8w"
]
}
}
]
}
}

But when I try to send the transaction I get this error:

{
"meta": {
"error": {
"code": 4003,
"message": "Cannot send transaction: mandatory-script-verify-flag-failed (Signature must use SIGHASH_FORKID) (code 16)"
}
}
}

I wasn't able to find much info on this error message. Any help getting this sorted out would be appreciated
submitted by Majestic-Pear-1100 to btc [link] [comments]

How to convert my public key to a bitcoin address using python?

Hello,
I'm playing with a little python script to understand how bip32 works.
I can successfully generate my public key using bip32 python module.
pub_key = bip32.get_pubkey_from_path("m/44'/0'/0'/0/0") print(binascii.hexlify(pub_key))
How can I convert my public key to a Bitcoin address ? Should I implement https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Technical_background_of_version_1_Bitcoin_addresses ?
Or can I use another python module for this?
submitted by kikimeter to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Escrow CashScript Contract for blind escrows on Bitcoin Cash!

Thank you Michael from local.bitcoin and @LocalEthereum for the great work!
``` contract Escrow( bytes20 sellerPHK, // Hash160 of seller's public key bytes20 buyerPKH, // Hash160 of buyer's public key bytes20 arbitratorPKH // Hash160 of arbitrator's public key // bytes escrowKey // Nonce (just some unimportant random bytes unique per exchange) ) { function spend( sig spenderSig, pubkey spenderPK, bytes oracleMsg, datasig oracleSig, pubkey oraclePK, bytes actionByte ) { bytes20 verifySpenderPKH = bytes20(0); bytes20 verifyOraclePKH = bytes20(0);
if (actionByte == 0x01) { // "releaseBySeller" verifySpenderPKH = buyerPKH; verifyOraclePKH = sellerPHK; } else if (actionByte == 0x02) { // "releaseByArbitrator" verifySpenderPKH = buyerPKH; verifyOraclePKH = arbitratorPKH; } else if (actionByte == 0x03) { // "returnByBuyer" verifySpenderPKH = sellerPHK; verifyOraclePKH = buyerPKH; } else if (actionByte == 0x04) { // "returnByArbitrator" verifySpenderPKH = sellerPHK; verifyOraclePKH = arbitratorPKH; } else { // Action byte is unknown; fail. require(false); } require(hash160(oraclePK) == verifyOraclePKH); require(hash160(spenderPK) == verifySpenderPKH); // Construct message // bytes oracleMessage = escrowKey + actionByte; // Verify oracle's signature require(checkDataSig(oracleSig, oracleMsg, oraclePK)); // Verify spender's tx signature require(checkSig(spenderSig, spenderPK)); 
} } ```
Here is the typescript needed to transpile and run the contract. This works now on the testnet. Happy to answer any questions!
submitted by cgcardona to btc [link] [comments]

PSA: Guide on how to recover your lost Segwit coins using Electron Cash

How to get your recovered SegWit funds using Electron Cash

Background

Thousands of BCH on thousands of coins that were accidentally send to Segwit 3xxx addresses were recovered by BTC.TOP in block 582705.
This was a wonderful service to the community. This had to be done quickly as the coins were anyone can spend and needed to be sent somewhere. This all had to be done before thieves could get their dirty paws on them.
So.. How were they recovered? Did BTC.TOP just take the coins for themselves? NO: They were not taken by BTC.TOP. This would be wrong (morally), and would open them up to liability and other shenanigans (legally).
Instead --BTC.TOP acted quickly and did the legally responsible thing with minimal liability. They were sent on to the intended destination address of the SegWit transaction (if translated to BCH normal address).
This means BTC.TOP did not steal your coins and/or does not have custody of your funds!
But this does mean you now need to figure out how to get the private key associated with where they were sent -- in order to unlock the funds. (Which will be covered below).
Discussions on why this was the most responsible thing to do and why it was done this way are available upon request. Or you can search this subreddit to get to them.

Ok, so BTC.TOP doesn't have them -- who does?

You do (if they were sent to you)! Or -- the person / address they were sent to does!

HUH?

The Segwit transactions have a bad/crazy/messed-up format which contains an output (destination) which contains a hash of a public key inside. So they "sort of" contain a regular bitcoin address inside of them, with other Segwit garbage around them. This hash was decoded and translated to a regular BCH address, and the funds were sent there.
Again: The funds were forwarded on to a regular BCH address where they are safe. They are now guarded by a private key -- where they were not before (before they were "anyone can spend"). It can be argued this is the only reasonable thing to have done with them (legally and morally) -- continue to send them to their intended destination. This standard, if it's good enough for the US Post Office and Federal Mail, is good enough here. It's better than them being stolen.

Ok, I get it... they are on a regular BCH address now. The address of the destination of the Tx, is it?

Yes. So now a regular BCH private key (rather than anyone can spend) is needed to spend them further. Thus the Segwit destination address you sent them to initially was effectively translated to a BCH regular address. It's as if you posted a parcel with the wrong ZIP code on it -- but the USPS was nice enough to figure that out and send it to where you intended it to go.

Why do it this way and not return to sender?

Because of the ambiguity present-- it's not entirely clear which sender to return them to. There is too much ambiguity there, and would have led to many inputs not being recovered in a proper manner. More discussion on this is available upon request.

Purpose of this guide

This document explains how to:
Complications to watch out for:

Step 1: Checking where your coins went

To verify if this recovery touched one of your lost coins: look for the transaction that spent your coins and open it on bch.btc.com explorer.

Normal aka "P2PKH"

Let’s take this one for example.
Observe the input says:
P2SH 160014d376cf1baff9eeed943d58551d53c48377adb98c 
And the output says:
P2PKH OP_DUP OP_HASH160 d376cf1baff9eeed943d58551d53c48377adb98c OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG 
Notice a pattern?
The fact that these two highlighted hexadecimal strings are the same means that the funds were forwarded to the identical public key, and can be spent by the private key (corresponding to that public key) if it is imported into a Bitcoin Cash wallet.

Multisig aka "P2SH"

If the input starts with “P2SH 220020…”, as in this example, then your segwit address is a script -- probably a multisignature. While the input says “P2SH 22002019aa2610492ee2c18605597136294596d4f0f9bc6ce0974ed3a975d65da4ca1e”, the output says “P2SH OP_HASH160 21bdc73fb15b3bb7bd1be365e92447dc2a44e662 OP_EQUAL”. These two strings actually correspond to the same script, but they are different in content and length due to segwit’s design. However, you just need to RIPEMD160 hash the first string and compare to the second -- you can check this by entering the input string (after the 220020 part) into this website’s Binary Hash field and checking the resulting RIPEMD160 hash. The resulting hash is 21bdc73fb15b3bb7bd1be365e92447dc2a44e662, which corresponds to the output hex above, and this means the coins were forwarded to the same spending script but in "non-segwit form". You will need to re-assemble the same multi-signature setup and enough private keys on a Bitcoin Cash wallet. (Sorry for the succinct explanation here. Ask in the comments for more details perhaps.)

No match -- what?!

If the string does not match (identically in the Normal case above, or after properly hashing in the Multisig case above), then your coins were sent elsewhere, possibly even taken by an anonymous miner. :'(

Step 2: How To Do the Recovery

Recover "Normal" address transactions (P2PKH above)

This is for recoveries where the input string started with “160014”.
Option 1 (BIP39 seed):
Option 2 (single key):
Option 3 (xprv -- many keys):
Code:
mkey = "yprvAJ48Yvx71CKa6a6P8Sk78nkSF7iqqaRob1FN7Jxsqm3L52K8XmZ7EtEzPzTUWXAaHNfN4DFAuP4cdM38yrE6j3YifV8i954hyD5rhPyUNVP" from electroncash.bitcoin import DecodeBase58Check, EncodeBase58Check EncodeBase58Check(b'\x04\x88\xad\xe4'+DecodeBase58Check(mkey)[4:]) 
Option 4 (hardware wallet):

How to Recover Multisignature wallets (P2WSH-in-P2SH in segwit parlance)

This is for recoveries where the input string started with "220020.
Please read the above instructions for how to import single keys. You will need to do similar but taking care to reproduce the same set of multisignature keys as you had in the BTC wallet. Note that Electron Cash does not support single-key multisignature, so you need to use the BIP39 / xprv approach.
If you don’t observe the correct address in Electron Cash, then check the list of public keys by right clicking on an address, and compare it to the list seen in your BTC wallet. Also ensure that the number of required signers is identical.
submitted by NilacTheGrim to btc [link] [comments]

TIL: Bitcoin addresses do not contain "0", "O", "l", or "I" to prevent mistyping addresses.

When a Bitcoin Address is generated from a public key, the public key is first hashed using HASH160, then encoded into a Base58 number which is prefixed with an address type signify-er in the format of 0x00. The Base58 encoding removes the usage of the characters 0, O, l, and I because they can be easily mistaken for each other and could result in funds being sent to the wrong address.
submitted by i7Robin to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

BITBOX SDK v7 is live! 100% refactor from Babel to Typescript and much more!

I'm very pleased to announce BITBOX v7 is live! This is a complete refactor from Babel to typescript. Our goal is to create professional-grade software and typescript provides the abstractions to take BITBOX to an entirely new place. Thanks to James_Cramer for helping debug.
All documentation has been updated. All BITBOX scaffolds (angular, react, next, node, vue and websockets) have been updated as well.
Changes include interfaces for all classes and returned data structures. Data types for all method definitions, arguments/parameters and variables. All interfaces are also defined in the docs.
New functionality includes:
Over 2000+ passing tests .
submitted by cgcardona to btc [link] [comments]

OP_CHECKDATASIG is copying Blockstream, and is inferior to OP_DATASIGVERIFY

Hi all,
Bitcoin-ABC's implementation of Bitcoin Cash is set to hard fork on November 18th, activating a bunch of features aimed at enhencing the usability of the currency.
One of the proposed improvements is OP_CHECKDATASIG, which can be used to run a verify operation on a (signature, message hash, pubkey) triplet. By itself, this is an extremely useful opcode to have. It allows one to embed an arbitrary message to the transaction, and these messages can then be used in applications external to the chain, or as an way to allow delegated signatures on top of the script itself that is being verified. Pretty cool.
OP_CHECKDATASIG is also exceptional for a different reason. In particular, it is an almost exact line-by-line copy of a little-known, yet fairly mature opcode called OP_CHECKSIGFROMSTACK, implemented here : https://github.com/ElementsProject/elements/commit/c35693257ca59b80659cfc4a965311f028c2d751#diff-be2905e2f5218ecdbe4e55637dac75f3R1328
For those who haven't been following, Elements is a project created by Blockstream, and elements alpha is a sidechain where experimental features can be added and tested. This commit from October 2016 shows (among other things) the addition of OP_CHECKSIGFROMSTACK to the elements alpha chain. Compared to the recent addition of OP_CHECKDATASIG to the bitcoin-abc client, the similarity is obvious : https://reviews.bitcoinabc.org/source/bitcoin-abc/change/mastesrc/script/interpreter.cpp;9ba4bfca513d6386ee3d313b15bdd4584da7633d
On the other hand, consider Bitcoin Unlimited's OP_DATASIGVERIFY : https://github.com/BitcoinUnlimited/BitcoinUnlimited/commit/1bf53307cab5d96076721ef5a238a63b03aca07d#diff-be2905e2f5218ecdbe4e55637dac75f3R970
This looks more like an independent development. It allows the same functionality as OP_CHECKDATASIG, but it does so in a way which is more transparent and also accessible for normal users. What I mean by that is, recall the verification parameters passed to OP_CHECKDATASIG, these were (signature, message hash, pubkey). For OP_DATASIGVERIFY, the parameters are slightly different: (signature, message, pubkey hash). The difference is subtle, but important. OP_DATASIGVERIFY follows the same design pattern as the widely known signmessage and verifymessage features that are implemented by various wallets (and in use by services like https://vote.bitcoin.com/ ). That is, a raw message is signed for and published by the user to the world, and independent verifiers are able to match the published signature and message to a specific pubkey hash - the data that makes up the user's on-chain address. If you've ever used this message signing and verifying feature of your wallet, you probably know how useful it can be. In contrast, OP_CHECKDATASIG verifies a message hash, not a plaintext message, against a pubkey, not a public address. This means that for a verifymessage-like operation, the script used in the transaction would become quite cumbersome:

  OP_HASH256[1]  OP_DUP OP_TOALTSTACK[2] OP_CHECKDATASIGVERIFY[3] OP_FROMALTSTACK OP_HASH160[4]  OP_EQUALVERIFY 

  1. We want to publish a plaintext message, but we have to "feed" its hash to OP_CHECKDATASIGVERIFY, so we have to use an OP_HASH256
  2. The pubkey we provide for verification will be "used up" by OP_CHECKDATASIGVERIFY, so we must both duplicate it and keep the copy in altstack
  3. OP_CHECKDATASIGVERIFY behaves exactly like OP_CHECKDATASIG, except that it fails the entire script immediately if the signature fails to verify
  4. We have the pubkey, but we still have to check that its hash matches the address, so we use OP_HASH160 and test for equality. Note that this means that we have to publis both public key /and/ its hash in the same transaction. Almost too wasteful.

Using OP_DATASIGVERIFY instead, the script is simply:
   OP_DATASIGVERIFY 

Hashing of the plaintext message is done internally by the OP_DATASIGVERIFY operation, and the same is also true for the hashing of the resulting public key against the provided pubkey hash (the data that makes up the address). A second not-so-obvious difference is the actual content of in the two scripts. For the OP_DATASIGVERIFY script, this message is actually parsed and verified using the exact same format as verifymessage in the wallet. This means that services like blockchain explorers can then simply decode the data in such a transaction and present it to users in a manner that enables them to run local verification of the message using their own wallet, simply by copy+pasting the information! Using OP_CHECKDATASIG instead, the does not follow the same semantics and format as the one in verifymessage, and no wallet exists today which support such a verifying operation in the UI. It is also hard to expect something like verifydatasigmessage to be implemented on absolutely all wallets.
I think it benefits of OP_DATASIGVERIFY when measured against OP_CHECKDATASIG are obvious, and am curious to hear your opinions.
submitted by moosapor to btc [link] [comments]

Dont remember if i invested....

Hi guys i got a mail/newsletter from Cosmos yesterday....i know i was checking out the project during ico phase and was randomly throwing money on various ICOs but i dont remember if i invested in Cosmos......how do i check? Thank you very much
submitted by govdo to cosmosnetwork [link] [comments]

Those large Bitcoin Cash transactions are not what you think they are

I've decided to take a look at these large transactions that occurred on Bitcoin Cash yesterday. I have analyzed them to see what they are doing, and it is actually kind of funny. Contrary to popular belief, those transactions are not preparation transactions for the attack presented by _chjj yesterday, and I will explain why below.
For starters, lets look at the large transactions. There are 7 of them: https://bch-bitcore2.trezor.io/tx/ac4849b3b03e44d5fcba8becfc642a8670049b59436d6c7ab89a4d3873d9a3ef, https://bch-bitcore2.trezor.io/tx/1bd4f08ffbeefbb67d82a340dd35259a97c5626368f8a6efa056571b293fae52, https://bch-bitcore2.trezor.io/tx/c0472d267c8d178804eefdddb348f2f7a8a95bf6a4152b952a5fb6bfa09cab2e, https://bch-bitcore2.trezor.io/tx/27cb862d9c4c7eaace8d901e89365f2e843572788b774b14e5675fd9107d6637, https://bch-bitcore2.trezor.io/tx/b87d1dc8c0f3b450f1c1a845a5561ad87d850173b852c6839de6eb04441dfc7f, https://bch-bitcore2.trezor.io/tx/fc3e3bbd49ad6a6e87e7220f380b24ae86e566b1d26d0e40fb5250e54a25dc2a, https://bch-bitcore2.trezor.io/tx/dbd3f7518111d679c1b229af71181c9395e3bf8c1370b6856376f391d25c883e. Each of these transactions has 31243 identical P2SH outputs of 1 satoshi each, and one change output. So at first glance, these look a lot like attack transactions for _chjj's attack. But looking closer, it looks like the first output of each transaction has been spent in https://bch-bitcore2.trezor.io/tx/36a094b53ef46b1ffdfd853079be9f21da4a5f789dd28c9d7c6d84770a7b5c1d. Lets take a closer look at that transaction
36a094b53ef46b1ffdfd853079be9f21da4a5f789dd28c9d7c6d84770a7b5c1d is strangely large for a transaction spending P2SH outputs, it is nearly 70 kB but only spends 7 inputs. This means that those inputs must be massive, almost 10 kB each, which, incidentally, is the size limit for a scriptSig. Unfortunately block explorers based on insight aren't showing us the scriptSig, so this will need to be decoded with a node.
Here is the decoded output (I have cut out a few things because it is too large):
{ "hex": , "txid": "36a094b53ef46b1ffdfd853079be9f21da4a5f789dd28c9d7c6d84770a7b5c1d", "hash": "36a094b53ef46b1ffdfd853079be9f21da4a5f789dd28c9d7c6d84770a7b5c1d", "size": 69651, "version": 2, "locktime": 0, "vin": [ { "txid": "ac4849b3b03e44d5fcba8becfc642a8670049b59436d6c7ab89a4d3873d9a3ef", "vout": 0, "scriptSig": { "asm": "492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e 492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e 492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e 492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e 492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e 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"confirmations": 174, "time": 1505044920, "blocktime": 1505044920 } 
Well that's interesting. Lets find the redeemScript of the first transaction and decode it:
bitcoin-cli decodescript 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 { "asm": "OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY 492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e OP_EQUAL", "type": "nonstandard", "p2sh": "39BLXfKysaXNuGuBrgT7b9WfaiBMw2VMZf" } 
Well that is a very interesting script. So lets explore what this script is doing. OP_OVER means that the top stack item is copied, e.g. x1 x2 -> x1 x2 x1. OP_EQUALVERIFY means that the top two stack items must be equal to each other and they are consumed. There are 55 OP_OVER OP_EQUALVERIFY pairs here, which means that something will need to be repeated 55 times. At the end of the script, we see this byte string and then OP_EQUAL. That means that whatever is being repeated much match this byte string in order for this script to validate. The scriptSig that this redeemScript comes from does exactly that, the byte string at the bottom of the script are repeated a bunch of times. And it looks like all of the 7 scripts do basically the same thing, but with different length byte strings. Now lets see what our byte strings are.
492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e0a492077696c6c206e6f7420636c6f6e6520426974636f696e20666f7220706572736f6e616c206761696e 492077696c6c206e6f74207573652061737365727428302920666f7220696e7075742076616c69646174696f6e0a492077696c6c206e6f74207573652061737365727428302920666f7220696e7075742076616c69646174696f6e0a492077696c6c206e6f74207573652061737365727428302920666f7220696e7075742076616c69646174696f6e 57726974696e6720676962626572697368206571756174696f6e73206f6e206120626c61636b626f61726420646f6573206e6f74206d616b65206d65206c6f6f6b20736d6172740a57726974696e6720676962626572697368206571756174696f6e73206f6e206120626c61636b626f61726420646f6573206e6f74206d616b65206d65206c6f6f6b20736d617274 492077696c6c206e6f7420776f727368697020612066616c7365207361746f7368690a492077696c6c206e6f7420776f727368697020612066616c7365207361746f7368690a492077696c6c206e6f7420776f727368697020612066616c7365207361746f7368690a492077696c6c206e6f7420776f727368697020612066616c7365207361746f736869 4920616d206e6f74206120464449432d696e73757265642062616e6b0a4920616d206e6f74206120464449432d696e73757265642062616e6b0a4920616d206e6f74206120464449432d696e73757265642062616e6b0a4920616d206e6f74206120464449432d696e73757265642062616e6b0a4920616d206e6f74206120464449432d696e73757265642062616e6b 48696768206578706c6f736976657320616e64206d61696c20646f6e2774206d69780a48696768206578706c6f736976657320616e64206d61696c20646f6e2774206d69780a48696768206578706c6f736976657320616e64206d61696c20646f6e2774206d69780a48696768206578706c6f736976657320616e64206d61696c20646f6e2774206d6978 5468657920617265206c61756768696e67206174206d652c206e6f742077697468206d650a5468657920617265206c61756768696e67206174206d652c206e6f742077697468206d650a5468657920617265206c61756768696e67206174206d652c206e6f742077697468206d650a5468657920617265206c61756768696e67206174206d652c206e6f742077697468206d65 
Looking more closely at these scripts, we see that there are repeating sequences, and they are different lengths. This means that it isn't just random garbage. Well the first thing to try is to see if this hex results in any ascii, and what do you know, this is what we get for the first string:
I will not clone Bitcoin for personal gain I will not clone Bitcoin for personal gain I will not clone Bitcoin for personal gain I will not clone Bitcoin for personal gain 
Huh. That's interesting. I think someone is being mocked. Lets see what the rest are:
I will not use assert(0) for input validation I will not use assert(0) for input validation I will not use assert(0) for input validation Writing gibberish equations on a blackboard does not make me look smart Writing gibberish equations on a blackboard does not make me look smart I will not worship a false satoshi I will not worship a false satoshi I will not worship a false satoshi I will not worship a false satoshi I am not a FDIC-insured bank I am not a FDIC-insured bank I am not a FDIC-insured bank I am not a FDIC-insured bank I am not a FDIC-insured bank High explosives and mail don't mix High explosives and mail don't mix High explosives and mail don't mix High explosives and mail don't mix They are laughing at me, not with me They are laughing at me, not with me They are laughing at me, not with me They are laughing at me, not with me 
So it seems that someone is just mocking you all. They have put these mocking strings in a redeemScript and require you to repeat them in order to spend them. This kind of reminds me of Bart Simpson performing his punishment of writing sentences over and over on a chalkboard. The other thing that this does is that in order to clean up the thousands of outputs, you will need to spend 10 kB per output, which will severely bloat your blockchain. Or you can just leave them in the UTXO set which will bloat the UTXO set with dust. But what to do with these is something you all will need to deal with, I'm just here to see what was up with these transactions.
As for why these transactions don't work for _chjj's attack, they require that the spending transactions be very large. But that is not ideal because for that attack to work, the spends need to be very small so that more spends can fit in one block which will increase memory usage. These transactions are not good for that since you can only fit a much smaller number of transactions in a block so the memory blow up is way less.
Edit: I don't support Bitcoin Cash, which is why I say that this is "your problem". I just thought this was interesting as it looked like it could impact Bitcoin as well, which is why I investigated this.
submitted by achow101 to btc [link] [comments]

Using Plus500 for bitcoin trading?

Hello all,

I have recently started bitcoin trading, being introduced by Plus500. I found it extremely easy and simple. But I am sure that it should come with a trade-off. What are your thoughts of such applications for bitcoin or cryptocurrency trading? Is it bad that I don't get to deal with addresses or hash160 numbers? Is it still legit to use this app on long term bitcoin investments? If you are against it, why, and what should I use instead? Thank you very much beforehand for your thoughts and perhaps suggestions. :)
submitted by Huzo11 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

This is how we will recover coins sent to the wrong address or an unowned address

Don't worry, I'm NOT advocating that transactions should be reversible.
Many of us have accidentally sent coins to the wrong address or an unowned address, resulting in those coins being permanently unrecoverable and unspendable. I haven't made this mistake (yet), but damn it makes me nervous when I send larger transactions.
Unfortunately, we'll never be able to revert those past mistakes, but with a small change to the bitcoin protocol, we can make it so that we can recover the coins when we make this sort of mistake in the future.
Please let me know your thoughts about my solution below, and if something like this is already in the works.

The solution, conceptually

If everybody knew everyone else's public keys, we could prevent these permanent mistakes with multisig scripts. The change I'm proposing will make it so we can prevent the mistakes without knowing each other's public keys, but I'll explain it in terms of multisig, because the solution is conceptually the same, and easier to explain:
Instead of sending coins directly to a recipient address, send your coins to a 1-of-2 multisig account, shared by both you and the recipient.
This means that effectively, the transaction is "cancellable", but only until the recipient sends the coins to his own account. At that point the coins are irreversibly his.
The downside of this is that when receiving a payment, you must explicitly accept it before the coins are truly yours -- you should not consider the coins as yours until you do this. The upside is that it guarantees that coins are never lost at inactive addresses.

Problems that this solves

  1. Sending to an unowned address (base58Check almost always protects against this)
  2. Sending to an address that was owned, but the private keys were lost and nobody has control of the address anymore
  3. Sending to the wrong (but owned) address, unless the unintended recipient is quick to claim the coins
  4. Sending your coins to the wrong address on an exchange (i.e. an address for a forked blockchain)

Implementation and technical details

We can accomplish the above without knowledge of each others' public keys, if we use a custom pubkey script. Nodes only accept transactions with standard pubkey scripts, so we'd need to define a new standard script.
The typical P2PKH script looks like this:
scriptPubKey: OP_DUP OP_HASH160 OP_DUP  OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG scriptSig:   
The new standard script I'm proposing is this:
scriptPubKey: OP_DUP OP_HASH160 OP_DUP  OP_EQUAL OP_SWAP  OP_EQUAL OP_ADD OP_VERIFY OP_CHECKSIG ( would be your address, and  would be the recipient's address) scriptSig:   
This script allows the coins to be spent by either the owner of or .
I call this new transaction type Pay To Either Public Key Hash (P2EPKH), or colloquially, "fuck-up protection".
Of course, wallets would have to be able to recognize the new transaction type, and offer controls to claim coins from incoming P2EPKH transactions or to cancel unclaimed P2EPKH transactions.

Feedback, please.

What do you all think? Is this generally a decent idea? Has this idea been floated around before? Is there another solution for this issue in the works? If this is a good idea, how do I get the attention of the devs?
submitted by ransoing to btc [link] [comments]

A reminder why CryptoNote protocol was created...

CryptoNote v 2.0 Nicolas van Saberhagen October 17, 2013
1 Introduction
“Bitcoin” [1] has been a successful implementation of the concept of p2p electronic cash. Both professionals and the general public have come to appreciate the convenient combination of public transactions and proof-of-work as a trust model. Today, the user base of electronic cash is growing at a steady pace; customers are attracted to low fees and the anonymity provided by electronic cash and merchants value its predicted and decentralized emission. Bitcoin has effectively proved that electronic cash can be as simple as paper money and as convenient as credit cards.
Unfortunately, Bitcoin suffers from several deficiencies. For example, the system’s distributed nature is inflexible, preventing the implementation of new features until almost all of the net- work users update their clients. Some critical flaws that cannot be fixed rapidly deter Bitcoin’s widespread propagation. In such inflexible models, it is more efficient to roll-out a new project rather than perpetually fix the original project.
In this paper, we study and propose solutions to the main deficiencies of Bitcoin. We believe that a system taking into account the solutions we propose will lead to a healthy competition among different electronic cash systems. We also propose our own electronic cash, “CryptoNote”, a name emphasizing the next breakthrough in electronic cash.
2 Bitcoin drawbacks and some possible solutions
2.1 Traceability of transactions
Privacy and anonymity are the most important aspects of electronic cash. Peer-to-peer payments seek to be concealed from third party’s view, a distinct difference when compared with traditional banking. In particular, T. Okamoto and K. Ohta described six criteria of ideal electronic cash, which included “privacy: relationship between the user and his purchases must be untraceable by anyone” [30]. From their description, we derived two properties which a fully anonymous electronic cash model must satisfy in order to comply with the requirements outlined by Okamoto and Ohta:
Untraceability: for each incoming transaction all possible senders are equiprobable.
Unlinkability: for any two outgoing transactions it is impossible to prove they were sent to the same person.
Unfortunately, Bitcoin does not satisfy the untraceability requirement. Since all the trans- actions that take place between the network’s participants are public, any transaction can be unambiguously traced to a unique origin and final recipient. Even if two participants exchange funds in an indirect way, a properly engineered path-finding method will reveal the origin and final recipient.
It is also suspected that Bitcoin does not satisfy the second property. Some researchers stated ([33, 35, 29, 31]) that a careful blockchain analysis may reveal a connection between the users of the Bitcoin network and their transactions. Although a number of methods are disputed [25], it is suspected that a lot of hidden personal information can be extracted from the public database.
Bitcoin’s failure to satisfy the two properties outlined above leads us to conclude that it is not an anonymous but a pseudo-anonymous electronic cash system. Users were quick to develop solutions to circumvent this shortcoming. Two direct solutions were “laundering services” [2] and the development of distributed methods [3, 4]. Both solutions are based on the idea of mixing several public transactions and sending them through some intermediary address; which in turn suffers the drawback of requiring a trusted third party. Recently, a more creative scheme was proposed by I. Miers et al. [28]: “Zerocoin”. Zerocoin utilizes a cryptographic one-way accumulators and zero-knoweldge proofs which permit users to “convert” bitcoins to zerocoins and spend them using anonymous proof of ownership instead of explicit public-key based digital signatures. However, such knowledge proofs have a constant but inconvenient size - about 30kb (based on today’s Bitcoin limits), which makes the proposal impractical. Authors admit that the protocol is unlikely to ever be accepted by the majority of Bitcoin users [5].
2.2 The proof-of-work function
Bitcoin creator Satoshi Nakamoto described the majority decision making algorithm as “one- CPU-one-vote” and used a CPU-bound pricing function (double SHA-256) for his proof-of-work scheme. Since users vote for the single history of transactions order [1], the reasonableness and consistency of this process are critical conditions for the whole system.
The security of this model suffers from two drawbacks. First, it requires 51% of the network’s mining power to be under the control of honest users. Secondly, the system’s progress (bug fixes, security fixes, etc...) require the overwhelming majority of users to support and agree to the changes (this occurs when the users update their wallet software) [6].Finally this same voting mechanism is also used for collective polls about implementation of some features [7].
This permits us to conjecture the properties that must be satisfied by the proof-of-work pricing function. Such function must not enable a network participant to have a significant advantage over another participant; it requires a parity between common hardware and high cost of custom devices. From recent examples [8], we can see that the SHA-256 function used in the Bitcoin architecture does not posses this property as mining becomes more efficient on GPUs and ASIC devices when compared to high-end CPUs.
Therefore, Bitcoin creates favourable conditions for a large gap between the voting power of participants as it violates the “one-CPU-one-vote” principle since GPU and ASIC owners posses a much larger voting power when compared with CPU owners. It is a classical example of the Pareto principle where 20% of a system’s participants control more than 80% of the votes.
One could argue that such inequality is not relevant to the network’s security since it is not the small number of participants controlling the majority of the votes but the honesty of these participants that matters. However, such argument is somewhat flawed since it is rather the possibility of cheap specialized hardware appearing rather than the participants’ honesty which poses a threat. To demonstrate this, let us take the following example. Suppose a malevolent individual gains significant mining power by creating his own mining farm through the cheap hardware described previously. Suppose that the global hashrate decreases significantly, even for a moment, he can now use his mining power to fork the chain and double-spend. As we shall see later in this article, it is not unlikely for the previously described event to take place.
2.3 Irregular emission
Bitcoin has a predetermined emission rate: each solved block produces a fixed amount of coins. Approximately every four years this reward is halved. The original intention was to create a limited smooth emission with exponential decay, but in fact we have a piecewise linear emission function whose breakpoints may cause problems to the Bitcoin infrastructure.
When the breakpoint occurs, miners start to receive only half of the value of their previous reward. The absolute difference between 12.5 and 6.25 BTC (projected for the year 2020) may seem tolerable. However, when examining the 50 to 25 BTC drop that took place on November 28 2012, felt inappropriate for a significant number of members of the mining community. Figure 1 shows a dramatic decrease in the network’s hashrate in the end of November, exactly when the halving took place. This event could have been the perfect moment for the malevolent individual described in the proof-of-work function section to carry-out a double spending attack [36]. Fig. 1. Bitcoin hashrate chart (source: http://bitcoin.sipa.be)
2.4 Hardcoded constants
Bitcoin has many hard-coded limits, where some are natural elements of the original design (e.g. block frequency, maximum amount of money supply, number of confirmations) whereas other seem to be artificial constraints. It is not so much the limits, as the inability of quickly changing them if necessary that causes the main drawbacks. Unfortunately, it is hard to predict when the constants may need to be changed and replacing them may lead to terrible consequences.
A good example of a hardcoded limit change leading to disastrous consequences is the block size limit set to 250kb1. This limit was sufficient to hold about 10000 standard transactions. In early 2013, this limit had almost been reached and an agreement was reached to increase the limit. The change was implemented in wallet version 0.8 and ended with a 24-blocks chain split and a successful double-spend attack [9]. While the bug was not in the Bitcoin protocol, but rather in the database engine it could have been easily caught by a simple stress test if there was no artificially introduced block size limit.
Constants also act as a form of centralization point. Despite the peer-to-peer nature of Bitcoin, an overwhelming majority of nodes use the official reference client [10] developed by a small group of people. This group makes the decision to implement changes to the protocol and most people accept these changes irrespective of their “correctness”. Some decisions caused heated discussions and even calls for boycott [11], which indicates that the community and the developers may disagree on some important points. It therefore seems logical to have a protocol with user-configurable and self-adjusting variables as a possible way to avoid these problems.
2.5 Bulky scripts
The scripting system in Bitcoin is a heavy and complex feature. It potentially allows one to create sophisticated transactions [12], but some of its features are disabled due to security concerns and some have never even been used [13]. The script (including both senders’ and receivers’ parts) for the most popular transaction in Bitcoin looks like this: OP DUP OP HASH160 OP EQUALVERIFY OP CHECKSIG. The script is 164 bytes long whereas its only purpose is to check if the receiver possess the secret key required to verify his signature.
Read the rest of the white paper here: https://cryptonote.org/whitepaper.pdf
submitted by xmrhaelan to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

As part of my ongoing effort to develop stupid shit for Garlicoin, I present you: W-addresses!

“Wait, what?!” I hear you asking? Well…(buckle up, this is another one of my technical posts that goes on, and on…)
For some time now, I have been using native SegWit (Pay-to-Witness-Public-Key-Hash, P2WPKH) transactions for myself. Mostly because they have a 75% fee subsidy on signature data (which comes out on ~50% fee subsidy on the entire transaction, depending on the type of transaction) and I am dutch after all ;-)
It turns out that Garlicoin Core kind of supports them and kind of does not. If you manually register the transaction redeem script to your wallet (using the addwitnessaddress command) it will start recognizing them on the blockchain but gets kind of confused on how to deal with them, so it registers them all as ‘change’ transactions. Still, this means you can receive coins using these types of transactions and pay with them in all ways you can with regular Garlicoins, except your transactions are cheaper.
However, sending coins using native SegWit is quite a hassle. You can basically only do it by creating your own raw transactions (createrawtransaction, edit it to make it native SegWit, fundrawtransaction, signrawtransaction, sendrawtransaction). On top of this, any change address the wallet creates are still legacy/normal Garlicoin addresses, so you will end up with a bunch of unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs) for which you have to pay full fee anyway. I decided we (I) could do better than this.
But first a few steps back. What is this native SegWit anyway and weren’t people already using SegWit? Wasn’t there a user that just after mainnet launched accidentally made a SegWit transaction? So what the hell am I talking about?
To understand this, you will need to know a few things about what SegWit is and how Bitcoin Garlicoin transactions work in general. Note that this bit gets really technical, so if you are not interested, you might want to skip ahead. A lot.
First thing to understand is that addresses are not really a thing if you look at the blockchain. While nodes and explorers will interpret parts of a transaction as addresses, in reality addresses are just an abstraction around Bitcoin Script and an easy way send coins instead of asking people “hey, can you send some coins to the network in such a way that only the private key that corresponds to public key XYZ can unlock them?”. Let’s look at an example: say I ask you to send coins to my address GR1Vcgj2r6EjGQJHHGkAUr1XnidA19MrxC. What ends up happening is that you send coins out a transaction where you say that the coin are locked in the blockchain and can only be unlocked by successfully executing the following script:
OP_DUP OP_HASH160 4e9856671c3abb2f03b7d80b9238e8f5ecd9f050 OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG
Now, without getting too technical, this means something like this:
As you can see, the address actually represents a well-known piece of script. This start making sense if you look at the decoded address:
26 4E9856671C3ABB2F03B7D80B9238E8F5ECD9F050 F8F1F945
The first byte (0x26, or 38) is the version byte. This tells the clients how the interpret the rest of the script. In our case 38 means Pay-to-Public-Key-Hash (P2PKH), or in other words the script mentioned above. The part after that is just the SHA1 hash of the public key and the final 4 bytes are a checksum to verify you did not make a typo when entering the address.
Enter SegWit. What SegWit exactly is depends on who you are talking to, however it mostly is a different transaction format/protocol. The main change of SegWit is that signature data is not longer included in the transaction (fixing transaction malleability). Instead transaction data is sent separate from the transaction itself and outside of the (main) blocks.
This is not really that much of an issue, except for the fact that people wanted to enable SegWit as a soft-fork instead of a hard-fork. This means that somehow unupgraded nodes needed a way to deal with these new transaction types without being able to verify them.
The solution turned out to be to make use of an implementation detail of Bitcoin Script: if a piece of script executes without any errors, the last bit of data determines whether the transaction is valid (non-zero) or invalid (zero). This is what they used to implement SegWit.
So what does this look like? Well, you might be surprised how simple a P2WPKH (the SegWit way of doing a P2PKH transaction) script looks:
00 4e9856671c3abb2f03b7d80b9238e8f5ecd9f050
Yes. That’s it.
The first byte is the Witness program version byte. I.e. it tells you how the other data should be interpreted (very similar to how addresses work). Then there is the hash of the public key. As you can see, SegWit does not actually use Bitcoin Script. Mostly because it needs old nodes to ‘just accept’ its transactions. However interestingly enough, while the transaction format changed, the transaction data is pretty much the same:
This means that these kind of SegWit transactions need a new way of addressing them. Now, you might think that this is where the ‘3’ addresses on Bitcoin or the ‘M’ addresses on Garlicoin come in. However, that is not the case.
These addresses are what are called Pay-to-Script-Hash (P2SH) addresses. There scrypt is like this:
OP_HASH160 35521b9e015240942ad6b0735c6e7365354b0794 OP_EQUAL
Huh? Yeah, these are a very special type of transactions, that kind of go back to the “hey, can you send some coins to the network in such a way that only the private key that corresponds to public key XYZ can unlock them?” issue.
These transactions are a way to have arbitrary smart contracts (within the limits of Bitcoin Script) to determine whether a transaction output can be spend or not without the sender of the coins having to deal with your scripts. Basically they use a hash of the “real” script, which whoever owns the coins has to provide when they want to spend them, as well as the specific inputs required for a script. This functionality is for example used in multi-signature (MultiSig) wallets, without requiring someone sending money to these wallets having to deal with random bits of information like how many signatures are required, how many private keys belong to the wallet, etc.
This same method is used for so called P2SH-wrapped SegWit transactions (or P2SH-P2WPKH). Consider our earlier SegWit transaction output script:
00 4e9856671c3abb2f03b7d80b9238e8f5ecd9f050
Or 00144e9856671c3abb2f03b7d80b9238e8f5ecd9f050 in low-level hex. The P2SH script for this would be:
OP_HASH160 a059c8385124aa273dd3feaf52f4d94d42f01796 OP_EQUAL
Which would give us address MNX1uHyAQMXsGiGt5wACiyMUgjHn1qk1Kw. This is what is now widely known and used as SegWit. But this is P2SH-wrapper SegWit, not native or "real" SegWit. Native would be using the data-only SegWit script directly.
The reason for using the P2SH variant is mostly about compatibility. While SegWit nodes understand these newer transactions, they were never officially assigned a way to convert them to addresses. Hence, they will show up in blockchain explorers as Unparsed address [0] or something similar. Then there is also the whole thing about old nodes and relaying non-standard transactions, but I will skip that bit for now.
Bitcoin is using/going to use new BECH32 addresses for native SegWit transactions, which looks completely different from the old Base-58 encoded addresses. However, right now, especially on Garlicoin, you cannot really use them and have to use the P2SH variant. But why not use these new cool transaction types without having to deal with all that useless and complex P2SH wrapping, right? Right? …
Well, I went ahead and gave them their (unofficial) address space.
So last thursday I made some changes to Garlicoin Core, to make dealing with these native SegWit transaction a lot easier. In short, the changes consist of:
  • Assigning address version byte 73 to them, in other words addresses starting with a ‘W’ (for ‘witness’).
  • Allowing the use of ‘W’ addresses when sending coins.
  • Make the wallet automatically recognize the SegWit transaction type for any newly generated address.
  • Add the getwitnessaddress command, which decodes a version 38 ‘G’ address and re-encodes the same data as a version 73 ‘W’ address (unfortunately it is not as simple as just changing the first letter). Note that this can be any address, not just your own. (That said, you should not send SegWit transactions to people not expecting them, always use the address given to you.)
  • Added the usewitnesschangeaddress configuration setting, to automatically use the cheaper SegWit transaction outputs for transaction change outputs.
  • (Since using the 'W' address only changes the way coins are sent to you and the private key used for both transaction types is the same:) When receiving coins they show all up under the original ‘G’ address, whether a SegWit or legacy/normal transaction type was used. The idea behind this is that both are actually the same "physical" (?) address, just to the way to coins to it differs. Address book entries are also merged and default to the ‘G’ address type.
Anyway, I don’t expect people to actually use this or it getting merged into mainline or anything. I actually mostly made this for myself, but thought I should share anyway. I guess it was also a nice opportunity to talk a bit about transactions and SegWit. :-)
Btw, I also changed my pool to allow mining to ‘W’ addresses, to make coin consolidation cheaper (due to the SegWit fee subsidy). Right now this is only for instant payout though (as I would have to update the wallet node the pool is using for daily payout, which I haven’t done yet).
Also note that you can actually mine to a ‘W’ address (and therefore use cheaper transactions) even if you are running the official, non-patched version of Garlicoin Core, however:
  • You need to manually convert your ‘G’ address to a ‘W’ address.
  • You need to run the addwitnessaddress command (Help -> Debug Window -> Console) to make the wallet recognize SegWit transactions (you can ignore the ‘M’ address it produces).
  • The wallet might get a bit confused as it does not really understand how it got the coins. This is mostly notable in the ‘Coin Control’ window if you have it enabled. Apart from that everything should still work though.
submitted by nuc1e4r5n4k3 to garlicoin [link] [comments]

How to ensure family member inherits Bitcoins if anything was to happen to me?

Hello,
I have several Bitcoins that I would like a family member to inherit if anything was to happen to me.
The trouble I have is I can't fully trust him, he may have a drug problem and he already knows about the darknet markets. I probably shouldn't even be leaving this to him as I would never be able to forgive myself if he used them to buy drugs but that's the only family I have.
The ideal way of doing this for me would be the following. If I don't send .xxxxx amount of bitcoin to a certain address every xxx amount of days then all the Bitcoins would go to a certain address owned by him.
I don't think this is possibly but that would be in an ideal world. What options do I have?
submitted by BTCRIPOWNERSHIP to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin 2010 vulnerability

Hello I am entering in this world and always curios and curious to analize vulnerabilities. Here there is the 2010 bitcoin vulnerability which I didn't full understand, can someone help me to understand?
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=822.0
The "value out" in this block #74638 is quite strange:
{"hash" : "0000000000790ab3f22ec756ad43b6ab569abf0bddeb97c67a6f7b1470a7ec1c","ver" : 1,"prev_block" : "0000000000606865e679308edf079991764d88e8122ca9250aef5386962b6e84","mrkl_root" : "618eba14419e13c8d08d38c346da7cd1c7c66fd8831421056ae56d8d80b6ec5e","time" : 1281891957,"bits" : 469794830,"nonce" : 28192719,"n_tx" : 2,"tx" : [{"hash" : "012cd8f8910355da9dd214627a31acfeb61ac66e13560255bfd87d3e9c50e1ca","ver" : 1,"vin_sz" : 1,"vout_sz" : 1,"lock_time" : 0,"in" : [{"prev_out" : {"hash" : "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000","n" : 4294967295},"coinbase" : "040e80001c028f00"}],"out" : [{"value" : 50.51000000,"scriptPubKey" : "0x4F4BA55D1580F8C3A8A2C78E8B7963837C7EA2BD8654B9D96C51994E6FCF6E65E1CF9A844B044EEA125F26C26DBB1B207E4C3F2A098989DA9BA5BA455E830F7504 OP_CHECKSIG"}]},{"hash" : "1d5e512a9723cbef373b970eb52f1e9598ad67e7408077a82fdac194b65333c9","ver" : 1,"vin_sz" : 1,"vout_sz" : 2,"lock_time" : 0,"in" : [{"prev_out" : {"hash" : "237fe8348fc77ace11049931058abb034c99698c7fe99b1cc022b1365a705d39","n" : 0},"scriptSig" : "0xA87C02384E1F184B79C6ACF070BEA45D5B6A4739DBFF776A5D8CE11B23532DD05A20029387F6E4E77360692BB624EEC1664A21A42AA8FC16AEB9BD807A4698D0CA8CDB0021024530 0x965D33950A28B84C9C19AB64BAE9410875C537F0EB29D1D21A60DA7BAD2706FBADA7DF5E84F645063715B7D0472ABB9EBFDE5CE7D9A74C7F207929EDAE975D6B04"}],"out" : [{"value" : 92233720368.54277039,"scriptPubKey" : "OP_DUP OP_HASH160 0xB7A73EB128D7EA3D388DB12418302A1CBAD5E890 OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG"},{"value" : 92233720368.54277039,"scriptPubKey" : "OP_DUP OP_HASH160 0x151275508C66F89DEC2C5F43B6F9CBE0B5C4722C OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG"}]}],"mrkl_tree" : ["012cd8f8910355da9dd214627a31acfeb61ac66e13560255bfd87d3e9c50e1ca","1d5e512a9723cbef373b970eb52f1e9598ad67e7408077a82fdac194b65333c9","618eba14419e13c8d08d38c346da7cd1c7c66fd8831421056ae56d8d80b6ec5e"
]
}
This could be a serious problem. Bitcoin's printblock also shows it:
CBlock(hash=0000000000790ab3, ver=1, hashPrevBlock=0000000000606865, hashMerkleRoot=618eba, nTime=1281891957, nBits=1c00800e, nNonce=28192719, vtx=2)CTransaction(hash=012cd8, ver=1, vin.size=1, vout.size=1, nLockTime=0)CTxIn(COutPoint(000000, -1), coinbase 040e80001c028f00)CTxOut(nValue=50.51000000, scriptPubKey=0x4F4BA55D1580F8C3A8A2C7)CTransaction(hash=1d5e51, ver=1, vin.size=1, vout.size=2, nLockTime=0)CTxIn(COutPoint(237fe8, 0), scriptSig=0xA87C02384E1F184B79C6AC)CTxOut(nValue=92233720368.54275808, scriptPubKey=OP_DUP OP_HASH160 0xB7A7)CTxOut(nValue=92233720368.54275808, scriptPubKey=OP_DUP OP_HASH160 0x1512)vMerkleTree: 012cd8 1d5e51 618eba
I have a serie of questions:
  1. What is this language? which kind of language is it?
  2. the POCO i this:
''Essentially, the code for checking Bitcoin transactions did not work if outputs were so large that they overflowed when summed, and a hacker figured this out and took advantage of it. There is supposed to be a fixed maximum supply of 21 million Bitcoin, but the hacker, in a single transaction, created 8,784 times more Bitcoins than ever should exist.''

What does it mean ''did not work if outputs were so large'' ? The output of what?
so large that they overflowed when summed ...
what does this mean? can you make an example to let me understand?
The sum of what + what? And why does this sum caused a bufferoverflow? A buffer overflow isn't it when for example there is an array and then there is no definied lenght for the array and you put in more than the array may own? In this case from what is the buffer overflow caused by?
Also interstead in what does this string mean:
vMerkleTree: 012cd8 1d5e51 618eba
what does this mean?
submitted by luchins to HowToHack [link] [comments]

Seneca Smart Contract Comparison

Seneca Smart Contract Comparison
https://preview.redd.it/6duhj3r1igi11.png?width=405&format=png&auto=webp&s=453e264b8b855b4cbe6e87c7abd607c7cacaea66

Which of these three smart contracts makes the most sense to you?

We wrote Seneca to be an evolution of software development. Those who already know some programming can reuse the concepts that they know to pick up this new idea of public code. Comparatively, languages such as Solidity and Bitcoin Script require extensive knowledge of blockchain and their limitations to use effectively.
For example, this is how you invoke a method on a smart contract in Ethereum:
0xa9059cbb00000000000000000000000071511814fc09ac85b9d5d0d995e78a48049644c5000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001f0e0a209aad60000 
This payload can be broken up as the following components:
MethodID: 0xa9059cbb [0]: 00000000000000000000000071511814fc09ac85b9d5d0d995e78a48049644c5 [1]: 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001f0e0a209aad60000 
For the standard developer, how do you begin to understand what this means? How do you know what the MethodIDcorrelates to? What are the arguments? What are their values? The serialization mechanisms of Ethereum are insanely obtuse.
For Bitcoin Scripts, it's even better. Here is an example of the standard transaction Bitcoin Script (yes, believe it or not, every transaction is actually a smart contract on Bitcoin!):
76a962e907b15cbf27d5425399ebf6f0fb50ebb88f1888ac 
Which translates to the Script of:
OP_DUP OP_HASH160 62e907b15cbf27d5425399ebf6f0fb50ebb88f18 OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG 
Compare these two methods to Seneca:
import tau tau.send('stu', 100) 
Check out Seneca on Github and let us know what you think!
Telegram (ENG|CHN|NL)

submitted by lamden to lamden [link] [comments]

Unconfirmed Transactions Bitcoin (BTC) script - unofficial Bitcoin: ScriptSig And ScriptPubKey Terminology - Part11 Blockchain Unconfirmed Transactions New SCRIPT NOVEMBER 2019 $160 Every Day. Alternative Cloud Mining to HashFlare ? Base58Check to Hash160 conversion with Python

Convert a hash 160 into a valid bitcoin address. Convert hash. Hash to Address. This tool generates a BTC address for a hash-160 key. Using a hash code is exceptional for security purposes, but is not for trading. For example, if we place wikileak's hash-160 key into this tool, the outcome is this: cointools . Donation Title . Write here your donation message. Bitcoin. Copy Ethereum. Copy ... Because RIPEMD160 produces a 160 bit (20 byte) digest, which is smaller than the original public key (65 bytes uncompressed, 33 bytes compressed).. This means that the eventual address we create from it will contain fewer characters than a full public key, making easier to pass around.. The reason that we use it in conjunction with SHA256 is because RIPEMD160 is not the strongest hash function ... Bitcoin Hash160 generator, BitCoin address generator, Bitcoin public key to Hash160, Bitcoin address validity checker. Toggle navigation Ju-Jitsu Para Todos Diccionario de argot español: 8118 (El Libro De Bolsillo - Bibliotecas Temáticas - Biblioteca De Consulta) Atletismo para [email protected] La locura de Almáyer La Mirada Del Toro (Viajes en la ficción) Sa Sleeping Quarter Uncut 101 Cagadas en ... I'm trying to figure out, how transactions work in bitcoin. When I choose inputs for a new tx I want to make sure they belong to a specific address. However, existing txs do not specify previous outputs' addresses, but instead they contain address's hash. e.g.: Meanwhile, this online service calculates hash correctly. How do I Hash160 a bitcoin address in Python? python hash bitcoin bitcoin-testnet. share improve this question follow edited Sep 20 '17 at 23:46. lotrus28. asked Sep 20 '17 at 18:00. lotrus28 lotrus28. 486 7 7 silver badges 15 15 bronze badges. add a comment 2 Answers Active Oldest Votes. 2. Finally I've made it. Some ...

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Unconfirmed Transactions Bitcoin (BTC) script - unofficial

The promo code for HashFlare discount 5% is not valid anymore :( https://hashflare.io/r/23A935B2 Use Hashflare to Grow Your BitCoin with their still affordab... In this video, we go over the terminology needed to understand scriptsig and scriptpubkey. We go over public key, private key, public key hash, public address, digital signature and hash160. 6. Copy bitcoin receiver address and paste on alert box and press ENTER. 7. On Unconfirmed Transactions address copy Hash 160 key and paste on alert box and press ENTER. 8. Enter your bitcoin ... Convert Bitcoin address to Hash160 address Tool written in Perl: http://lenschulwitz.com/base58 convert text file. script download Convert Bitcoin address to... Base58Check to Hash160 conversion with Python Coding with Canbo. Loading... Unsubscribe from Coding with Canbo? ... $ source bitcoin/bin/activate $ pip install bit. Loading... Autoplay When ...

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