Bitcoin Mining Calculator CoinWarz

Litecoin mining!

Since the litecoin community is growing, I've decided to introduce /litecoinmining, a place for all discussion revolving mining litecoins!
[link]

r/IOTAmarkets

Welcome to IOTAmarkets! -- IOTA is a quantum-resistant distributed ledger protocol launched in 2015, focused on being useful for the emerging m2m economy of Internet-of-Things (IoT), data integrity, micro-/nano- payments, and anywhere else a scalable decentralized system is warranted. IOTA uniquely offers zero fees, no scaling limitations, and decentralized consensus where users are also validators. The digital currency 'iota' has a fixed money supply with zero inflationary cost.
[link]

ETH To AUD Calculator - Buy Bitcoin With Mastercard

Bitcoinsxchanger platform uses such an Eth to AUD calculator that has the potential to give you 100% accurate results. This saves enough time giving you a guarantee that you will have the correct calculations. Therefore, this site has made the bitcoin trading system all over the world the easiest as well as simplest for you. A beginner should not get worried about how to start the conversion process of cryptocurrency as this site guides in the best way, giving a lot of best facilities and amazing offers. So, stay tuned to this amazing website and get updates instantly about cryptocurrency.

Buy Bitcoin With Mastercard

In this modern world, it is not difficult for you to buy bitcoin with Mastercard at all. Now, you can easily convert bitcoin and other crypto coins into the real money without facing any issue but no any the other platform on the internet seems to follow the strict security rules and regulations, and that is why, people can't fulfill the process for bitcoin exchange purpose and thus, suffer loss. Therefore, people should not trust all such fake websites that are absolutely making the image of other good platforms bad. Bitcoinsxchanger site provides such services that are 100% secure and user-friendly.

Bitcoin Transfer From PayPal To Neteller

The process of making bitcoin transfer from PayPal to neteller is the simplest. PayPal is the most famous payment method all around the world, and it is used by millions of people. Bitcoinsxchanger is currently giving you a good opportunity to receive your cash via PayPal after exchanging bitcoins instantly without facing a single hurdle in the whole process. Not any registration is required at this platform, and this is not the case on the other online sites. Moreover, we don't demand any extra charges from you. Without moving from your comfortable place, you can get awesome features and best BTC services easily.

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Ethereum to AUD calculator that is used by our platform is 100% trusted and highly recommended as it gives you such calculations that are free from any error and mistake. Moreover, you can get the calculation results within a few seconds saving enough time. This platform has a large list of sincere customers who use this platform and get the services of these excellent calculators. This site uses such a mechanism that is fully automatic. That is why there is no chance of any error in the calculations of either bitcoin or any other type of cryptocurrency. This accuracy feature attracts the customers making BTC transactions the easiest.

Buy Monero Coin

This is the most suitable platform for those crypto merchants who want to buy monero coin and simultaneously get a high amount of money. One of the best features of this website revolves around the quick transaction done by it. Today, everyone is so much busy in the current affairs that he/she can hardly find time to waste on such a small process. In this way, we understand that your time is very precious, and that is why we aim to give you the fastest results showing you a way of such a simple process to buy and sell crypto that can be completed without wasting your time.

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This platform is free of any scam and frauds and provides you a place where you can easily convert BTC to BCH without giving us any extra fee. Moreover, we never believe in taking out our personal profit from any fee that you pay at this platform. You can also see the satisfactory responses of the users of this site to make a decision to use this wonderful website that is really working as the best bitcoin service provider for you so that you should not face any scam online. This is the best time to exchange bitcoin to bch.
submitted by hagvu007 to u/hagvu007 [link] [comments]

USI Tech Compounding Calculator Multi Currency USD, AUD, GBP, THB EUR & Bitcoin. Rebuy Calculator

USI Tech Compounding Calculator Multi Currency USD, AUD, GBP, THB EUR & Bitcoin. Rebuy Calculator submitted by Rufflenator to 3bitcoins [link] [comments]

USI Tech Compounding Calculator Multi Currency USD, AUD, GBP, THB EUR & Bitcoin. Rebuy Calculator

USI Tech Compounding Calculator Multi Currency USD, AUD, GBP, THB EUR & Bitcoin. Rebuy Calculator submitted by ososru to Bitcoin4free [link] [comments]

BTC To AUD Converter | Bitcoin Price In Australian Dollar Calculator

BTC To AUD Converter | Bitcoin Price In Australian Dollar Calculator submitted by coinscapturecom to u/coinscapturecom [link] [comments]

BTC To AUD Converter | Bitcoin Price In Australian Dollar Calculator

BTC To AUD Converter | Bitcoin Price In Australian Dollar Calculator submitted by coinscapturecom to u/coinscapturecom [link] [comments]

BTC To AUD Converter | Bitcoin Price In Australian Dollar Calculator

BTC To AUD Converter | Bitcoin Price In Australian Dollar Calculator submitted by coinscapturecom to u/coinscapturecom [link] [comments]

BCH To AUD Converter | Bitcoin Cash Price In Australian Dollar Calculator

BCH To AUD Converter | Bitcoin Cash Price In Australian Dollar Calculator submitted by coinscapturecom to u/coinscapturecom [link] [comments]

How To Use The Bitcoin Calculator App

How To Use The Bitcoin Calculator App

https://preview.redd.it/d23or4ml5nu51.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=e27f4858fc4f06d17875023c5a3f87717104bcae
Visit us at https://bitcoincalculator.org
Use this bitcoin calculator to find out exactly how much your bitcoin is worth in any of the supported global currencies, using accurate, up-to-date exchange rates.
Get real-time and historical trends in the BTC value for your selected currency and easily perform any of the following currency conversions:

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Sign up to any of our recommended bitcoin exchanges to start buying and selling BTC today.
Features:
- Backed by real-time price data and interactive charts
- Total circulating BTC
- Market capitalization
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- Easy access to your favorite exchanges
submitted by seoexpertdipum0 to u/seoexpertdipum0 [link] [comments]

Beginner project using YFinance - need help!

Hey all,
I'm fairly novice at Python, but have started to (attempt to) write useful programs. So far I've put one together that traverses a folder list and checks for a particular folder and either adds it if it isn't there, or renames it if it is labelled incorrectly.
I have recently almost finished my 2nd project. It's a data extractor that calculates percentage returns of most of the world's major stock market indices over a user-selected time period, using the YFinance library.
I've managed to capture and address all errors except for a ValueError to do with the datetime module. It will only come up if the user enters an incorrect date (e.g. the 31st of February) and causes the program to crash.
You will see in the While loop for the 'end date' field, I've tried adding the ValueError statement here (I've also tried other places in the code as well including under the loop that reads the dictionary of stock indices) but each time a wrong date format is entered, the error appears.
What I need help with is:
I've been reading up on datetime for much of the weekend but still haven't made any progress with it. I'm sure it's a relatively simple fix, but I am requesting help from those who are much more skilled than I.
Also if anyone notices any redundant info in the code, please don't hesitate to inform me!
Thanks in advance for your help!!
import yfinance as yf import pandas import re import sys import datetime from datetime import timedelta """Title:""" print("MAJOR INDICES STOCK PRICE CALCULATOR (FROM DATE TO DATE) \n") """Ensure user enters correct date format:""" correct_date_format = re.compile(r'\d{4}-\d{2}-\d{2}') """User enters date range:""" while True: start_date_script = "Enter a start date in the format YYYY-MM-DD" start_date_script += "\n(type 'q' then press 'enter' to exit): " end_date_script = "\nEnter an end date in the format YYYY-MM-DD: " end_date_script += "\n(type 'q' then press 'enter' to exit): " start_date = '' end_date = '' """Ensure start/end date matches correct format and give option to exit""" while True: start_date = input(start_date_script) start_date_match = re.search(correct_date_format, start_date) if start_date == 'q': sys.exit() if not start_date_match is None: break else: print( "You must enter a start date in the format YYYY-MM-DD! \n" ) while True: try: end_date = input(end_date_script) except ValueError: print( "This month doesn't have this many days. Please try again.") except IndexError: print("\nPlease enter a larger date range") continue else: end_date_match = re.search(correct_date_format, end_date) if end_date == 'q': sys.exit() if end_date <= start_date: print("\nThe end date cannot be before the start date!") print() continue if not end_date_match is None: break else: print( "You must enter an end date in the format YYYY-MM-DD!\n" ) """List of all ticker symbols to be used""" yahoo_tickers = { 'All Ords': '^AORD', 'S&P ASX 200': '^AXJO', 'NZX50': '^NZ50', 'NASDAQ': '^NDX', 'S&P 500': '^GSPC', 'Dow Jones': '^DJI', 'FTSE': '^FTSE', 'DAX': '^GDAXI', 'Hang Seng': '^HSI', 'Nikkei225': '^N225', 'Gold': 'GC=F', 'Oil': 'CL=F', 'CMC Crypto 200': '^CMC200', 'Bitcoin (in AUD)': 'BTC-AUD', 'MSCI World index': 'XWD.TO' } """Calculate difference between end date and set time periods""" datetimeFormat = '%Y-%m-%d' date1 = start_date date2 = end_date diff = datetime.datetime.strptime(date1, datetimeFormat)\ - datetime.datetime.strptime(date2, datetimeFormat) print() print("-------------------------------------------------") print("Total days in period:", abs(diff.days)) print("-------------------------------------------------") """Return percentage change reports from major indices:""" for index, ticker_code in yahoo_tickers.items(): try: ticker = yf.Ticker(ticker_code) ticker_history = ticker.history(start = start_date, end = end_date) except ValueError: print( "Incorrect amount of days for month. Please try again.") except(IndexError, KeyError): print( "To avoid the above error, try extending your date range\n." ) else: ticker_percent_change = "%.2f" % round( (((ticker_history['Close'][-1] / ticker_history['Close'][0]) - 1)* 100), 2) print( "{0:<50}{1:>10}".format( "\n" + index + " % change in selected period: ", (str(ticker_percent_change) + '%'))) goto_start = "\nDo you want to input a new date range? " goto_start += "\nPress 'y' & 'enter' to input a new date range." goto_start += "\nPress 'n', then 'enter' to exit. " cont_or_exit = input(goto_start) if cont_or_exit == 'y': print() continue if cont_or_exit == 'n': break 
submitted by AussieMazza to learnpython [link] [comments]

Best ways to buy Bitcoin in Japan?

I have purchased Bitcoin (and other crypto) before on Australian and Chinese exchanges, as well as LocalBitcoins in the past, but have never bought any in Japan. Was wondering what people's recommendations for a local exchange/wallet are? Looking for something FSA-approved and low fees.
I hear Bitflyer thrown around a lot, does anyone have any experience with that? I also see Rakuten has opened something called Rakuten Wallet but never heard of anyone using it.
Extra question in case anyone knows: If I buy Bitcoin in Japan, but sent the Bitcoin to an Australian exchange and then sold it later on the Australian exchange, how would tax be calculated? I assume I would need to record the equivalent AUD price when I bought it (despite having purchased in yen), and then calculate if there is a capital gain when I sold later in AUD. But do I pay tax to Japan or Australia in this case?
submitted by unborderedlife to japanlife [link] [comments]

PSA: Australians can pay their credit card, rent, and other bills with ⚡ Lightning Network ⚡ today!

PSA: Australians can pay their credit card, rent, and other bills with ⚡ Lightning Network ⚡ today! submitted by OsrsNeedsF2P to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How To Read Cryptocurrency Charts

Have you a concern about how to read cryptocurrency charts? Well, this is so easy for you at the Bitcoinsxchanger site. Cryptocurrency charts have become one of the necessary items to make you aware of the progressed crypto prices and costs. They are also useful once you make your mind to compare digital assets with each other. In this way, such charts are a source of comfort for the new users so that they can easily search for anything related to the helpful news about crypto price. Our cryptocurrency charts are containing the crypto exchange charges that are just according to the world’s market.

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submitted by hagvu007 to u/hagvu007 [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Cash To AUD - BTC To LTC Exchange

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submitted by hagvu007 to u/hagvu007 [link] [comments]

Major change to NEXO tokenomics

Extract from email Nexo account holders have received.
"What Is Changing
These changes will be live and effective as of the 10th of February giving you ample time to make all arrangements and adjustments, so as to meet your personal needs and financial goals.
All interest accumulated on our platform is calculated by the state-of-the-art and fully-automated Nexo Oracle. The Oracle determines the interest and respective discount for every client’s wallet daily with no effort required of our clients."
submitted by knowbean to Nexo [link] [comments]

Bitcoin to australian dollars exchange btc to aud Conversion

Fast converter 1 btc to aud conversion coinbase news updates exchange bitcoin to australian dollars fee calculator premier automatic deposit and withdrawals
submitted by farazkhanniazi to u/farazkhanniazi [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Conversion Rate today - Price Calculator Btc To Inr

Get realtime price btc to inr cad usd euro British Pound aud foreign currencies exchange rate calculator online bitcoin conversion rate today predictions
submitted by farazkhanniazi to u/farazkhanniazi [link] [comments]

Bitcoin to australian dollars exchange btc to aud Conversion

Fast converter 1 btc to aud conversion coinbase news updates exchange bitcoin to australian dollars fee calculator premier automatic deposit and withdrawals
submitted by farazkhanniazi to u/farazkhanniazi [link] [comments]

Bitcoin to australian dollars exchange btc to aud Conversion

Fast converter 1 btc to aud conversion coinbase news updates exchange bitcoin to australian dollars fee calculator premier automatic deposit and withdrawals
submitted by farazkhanniazi to u/farazkhanniazi [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Conversion Rate today - Price Calculator Btc To Inr

Get realtime price btc to inr cad usd euro British Pound aud foreign currencies exchange rate calculator online bitcoin conversion rate today predictions
submitted by farazkhanniazi to u/farazkhanniazi [link] [comments]

Tax Megathread

BitcoinAus Tax Megathread

DISCLAIMER

The purpose of this post is to provide crypto-currency investors and traders with a basic understanding of the laws and prinipals regarding tax treatment for crypto-currency in Australia (including but no limited to Bitcoin) as it applies to individuals, not businesses.
At this point in time, this post does not attempt to explain tax treatment for businesses, or when trading in bitcoin is and is not classified as a business.
This post is a work in progress and will be updated and improved on an ongoing basis.
The Author(s) of this post are not tax accountants. Any advice given and/or any facts presented are based solely on our personal understanding of the rules and determinations made by the ATO and do not constitute financial advice. Please feel free to message any of the moderator team should you wish to dispute any of the facts or wording listed here. Please also feel free to offer suggestions and/or improvements that can be made in the comment section.
When in doubt, you should always seek professional advice from a tax accountant.

Captial Gains Tax

First and foremost, lets look at this exerpt from the ATO brief titled "Tax treatment of crypto-currencies in Australia" [1]
Transacting with bitcoin is akin to a barter arrangement, with similar tax consequences. Our view is that bitcoin is neither money nor a foreign currency, and the supply of bitcoin is not a financial supply for goods and services tax (GST) purposes. Bitcoin is, however, an asset for capital gains tax (CGT) purposes.
So this tells us two things.
1) Crypto-currencies are treated as assets for captial gains tax (CGT) purposes.
2) Crypto-currency trasnactions are treated as barter arrangements, with similar tax consequences.
Calculating capital gains tax (CGT) for your investments may sound daunting, but it is really very easy.
If you sell a capital asset, such as real estate or shares (or in our case, crypto-currencies), you usually make a capital gain or a capital loss. This is the difference between what it cost you to acquire the asset and what you receive when you dispose of it.[2]
You need to report capital gains and losses in your income tax return and pay tax on your capital gains. Although it's referred to as capital gains tax (CGT), this is actually part of your income tax, not a separate tax.[2] This means that the amount of CGT you pay will depend on your own marginal tax rate.
When you sell or otherwise dispose of an asset, it's called a capital gains tax (CGT) event. This is the point at which you make a capital gain or loss.[2]
Lets work through an example; Alice purchased 1BTC at a price of $6000 AUD per BTC in Janurary of 2016. Over the ourse of the year, the price of Bitcoin increased to $10000 AUD. Alice then sold 0.5BTC in December 2017 at a price of $10000 per BTC. Therefore the total amount gained from the sale was $5000. It is at this point in time that a CGT event is generated. Alice must now calucalte the profit for this CGT event so that she may declare it on her 2017/2018 tax return (As this is financial year that the CGT event occured).
The first step is to calculate the cost base for the 0.5BTC that was sold. In our example this is easy, Alice originally paid $6000 for 1BTC, which gives us a cost base of $3000 for 0.5BTC. The amount Alice received from sale of the 0.5BTC was $5000, so she subtracts the cost base from the sale price ($5000 - $3000) which leaves her with $2000 profit. This is the amount that Alice will record on her 2017/2018 tax return as a Capital Gain.

Other considerations

There are a number of other considerations to make when calculating profit for a CGT event.
  • The ATO offer individuals a 50% discount on capital gains when the disposed asset has been held for a period of time that exceeds 12 months. The way to make this calculation is as follows; Subtract the cost base from the capital proceeds, deduct any capital losses, then reduce by the relevant discount percentage. (50% for individuals). So in our above example, Alice will only be taxed on a $1000 capital gain had she held the Bitcoin for > 12 months. [3]. Alice would still need to declare the full capital gain on her tax return, but she would select the 'discount' method when performing the calculation. [9].
  • Any incidental costs associated with purchasing, holding, moving, and/or disposing of an asset may also be deducted from the capital proceeds prior to calculating the capital gain. The ATO provide the following example [4]
    The following example (with values inserted) illustrates how to calculate a capital gain:
    Capital proceeds (sale price) $10,210
    Less Cost base:
    • Purchase price $6,000
    • Incidental costs of purchase (Brokerage fee and GST) $100
    • Incidental costs of sale (Brokerage fees and GST) $110 $6,210
    Capital gain $4,000
    Further details for calculating the cost base, and reduced cost base of an asset can be found here.
  • Any capital losses may be carried forward from previous tax years and used to offset capital gains (if any) in the current tax year. [8]
  • It's important to note that losses are applied to any gains before applying the CGT discount. So if you have a carried forward loss of $1,000 and make a gain eligible for the discount of $2,000, your net gain is ($2,000 - $1,000) * 50% = $500.

Bitcoin as a personal use asset

Where you use bitcoin to purchase goods or services for personal use or consumption, any capital gain or loss from disposal of the bitcoin will be disregarded (as a personal use asset) provided the cost of the bitcoin is $10,000 or less. [1]
Personal use assets are CGT assets, other than collectables, used or kept mainly for the personal use or enjoyment of you or your associates. [5]
Personal use assets include:
  • boats
  • furniture
  • electrical goods
  • household items
Bitcoin that is kept or used mainly to make purchases of items for personal use or consumption ordinarily will be kept or used mainly for personal use. Bitcoin that is kept or used mainly for the purpose of profit-making or investment, or to facilitate purchases or sales in the course of carrying on business is not used or kept mainly for personal use. [6]
The ATO have released a Ruling Compendium to accompany TD2014/25EC. One section of this compendium provides clarification on when bitcoin will be a personal use asset.[10] (Item 10)
Item 10 section 1 states the following:
A taxpayer who purchases bitcoin with the intention of holding onto them for a number of years so that they appreciate in value and the profit can be spent in their retirement, is using the bitcoin for investment or profit making purposes and the bitcoin is not a personal use asset.[10]
Further, Item 11 section 3 states the following:
All of the facts and circumstances regarding the acquisition, use and disposal of the bitcoin are relevant to determining whether the bitcoin are a personal use asset.[10]
I urge everyone to read the Compendium, specifically items 10 and 11. These clarifications mean that bitcoin cannot be disposed of as a 'personal use asset' if they were bought or held with the intention of making a profit.

Bitcoin barter arrangements & trading crypto pairs

Transacting with bitcoin is akin to a barter arrangement. [1]
In its simplest form, bartering involves the direct exchange of goods or services for other goods or services without reference to money or a money value. [7]
Early we discussed the fact that Bitcoin and other crypto-currencies are treated and assets, and not currencies. What this means is that whenever you acquire crypto-currency, you are acquiring an asset. This means that trading crypto pairs is essentially a barter arrangement involving the disposal of one asset and an acquisition of a different asset. By definition, this means that you generate a CGT event each and every time you trade a crypto pair. The ATO law regarding barter arrangements tells us that you must assign an AUD value to the disposed asset as well as the acquired asset at the time of the trade. You must then calculate your capital gain or loss using these values.
As a general rule when valuing the consideration arising from barter or countertrade transactions, the ATO will accept a fair market value as adequately reflecting the money value or arm's length value, as applicable. In most cases, the ATO will accept as a fair market value, the cash price which the taxpayer would normally have charged a stranger for the services or for the sale of the goods or property. [7]

Citations

[1] Tax treatment of crypto-currencies in Australia https://www.ato.gov.au/misc/downloads/pdf/qc42159.pdf
[2] Captial Gains Tax https://www.ato.gov.au/General/Capital-gains-tax/
[3] Working out your capital gain https://www.ato.gov.au/General/Capital-gains-tax/Working-out-your-capital-gain-or-loss/Working-out-your-capital-gain/
[4] How to Calculate a Capital Gain or Loss http://www.educatedinvestor.com.au/pages/How-to-Calculate-a-Capital-Gain-or-Loss.html
[5] Personal use assets https://www.ato.gov.au/general/capital-gains-tax/cgt-assets-and-exemptions/#Personal_use_assets
[6] Tax determination - Is Bitcoin a 'CGT Asset' for the purposes of subsection 108-5(1) of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 ? http://law.ato.gov.au/atolaw/view.htm?DocID=TXD/TD201426/NAT/ATO/00001
[7] Barter arrangements http://law.ato.gov.au/atolaw/view.htm?docid=ITIT2668/NAT/ATO/00001
[8] Capital losses on shares and units https://www.ato.gov.au/General/Capital-gains-tax/Shares,-units-and-similar-investments/Capital-losses-on-shares-and-units/
[9] The discount method of calculating your capital gain https://www.ato.gov.au/General/Capital-gains-tax/Working-out-your-capital-gain-or-loss/Working-out-your-capital-gain/The-discount-method-of-calculating-your-capital-gain/
[10] TD 2014/25EC Ruling Compendium https://www.ato.gov.au/law/view/document?LocID=%22CTD%2FTD2014EC25%2FNAT%2FATO%2F00001%22&PiT=99991231235958

Additional documents and links:

Elements of the cost base and reduced cost base
Types of CGT events - specifically type A1 - Disposal
Cost Base
Selling an asset and other CGT events
Australian Crypto FAQ
Tax crime explained
ATO Interest and penalties
Record keeping for CGT
submitted by Black_Light to BitcoinAUS [link] [comments]

[AMA]Am petrecut 2 ani și 6 luni într-un centru de detenție pentru minori. ama

După cum spune și titlul, am petrecut 2 ani și 6 luni într-un centru de detenție pentru minori (două, de fapt, și multe alte penitenciare).
Vreau să fac un vlog pe tema asta și sunt curios care sunt întrebările oamenilor și care este viziunea din exterior despre lumea penitenciară.
Pentru ce am ajuns acolo, am scris mai de mult într-un articol pe blogul personal (între timp l-am șters, dar vi-l las mai jos).
Ce e mai jos e doar un rezumat a întregii povești. Sunt multe lucruri despre care cred că ar mai fi loc de vorbit, așa că vreau să realizez un material mai complex despre treaba asta. ama!
După cum scrie și pe pagina „Despre mine”, da, am fost închis într-un centru de detenție pentru doi ani și șase luni, așa că o să detaliez un pic povestea asta.
Făcând un pic background check pentru a se înțelege, ai mei mi-au luat calculator pe la 6 ani. Chestia asta m-a prins, mi-a plăcut și am început să aprofundez. M-a atras în special gamingul și am făcut și ceva programare web (html, css, js).
7 ani mai târziu, în 2012, acasă, plictisit pe Internet. Google „free riot points cards”, la momentul ăla crezând că lumea încă oferă lucruri gratuite pe Internet și că un search pe Google o să mi le aducă pe toate mie, propriei mele persoane atât de importante într-un Internet atât de mare. Click, click, click, pagina 2, click, click, pagina 3, click click, . . . , pagina 8 – „Free carded RP game codes – sitedecarding.com”.
Da, am găsit coduri RP gratuite. Ca idee, punctele RP sunt puncte plătite într-un joc numit League of Legends. Coduri despre care nu știam la acel moment că au fost achiziționate de un tip dubios de pe un site de carding (=fraudă informatică prin instrumente de plată electronice) și care le-a postat acolo ca să atragă clienți pentru serviciile pe care le oferea.
Long short story, mi-am făcut cont, am luat două coduri gratuite, au funcționat. Minunat fiind de modalitatea prin care tipul ăsta putea să ofere și să obțină gratis lucruri care în mod normal costă bani, am început să navighez din ce în ce mai des pe site-ul în cauză (site pe care nu o să îl menționez aici din motive etice) și să învăț despre lucrurile astea. Am învățat cum să obțin date de identificare ale cardurilor bancare online, cum și unde pot să le folosesc, cum să identific și să profit de vulnerabilități ale serverelor online pentru a obține genul ăsta de date și alte lucruri de genul ăsta. Chestia asta chiar m-a prins rău de tot și după ceva timp tot ceea ce făceam în fiecare zi era legat doar de lucrurile astea și încercam să îmi perfecționez cât mai mult metodele de fraudare pentru a obține un profit cât mai mare. Am început cu timpul să obțin lucruri mai valoroase și să fac bani mai mulți, pentru că aveam cunoștințe din ce în ce mai avansate. Comenzile pe care le făceam la început, folosind date de carduri oferite de alți membri ai acelei comunități în mod gratuit după ce erau folosite de ei și prin care obțineam tricouri, brelocuri, abțibilduri și tot soiul de lucruri mici și ieftine s-au transformat în comenzi efectuate cu date de carduri pe care le obțineam pe cont propriu prin diferite metode și care îmi aduceau electronice scumpe, bijuterii și chiar transferuri de bani în valută ori monedă digitală Bitcoin.
Toate au mers frumos, până în luna august a anului 2013. M-am trezit într-o zi pe la cinci dimineața, încrezător fiind că o să înceapă o nouă zi plină de satisfacție pentru mine și gândindu-mă chiar din primele momente după ce m-am trezit ce aș vrea să obțin în ziua aia, având ca referință zilele și săptămânile trecute în care deja obținusem și cheltuisem o grămadă de bani și cu dorința incredibil de mare de a avea și mai mult. Stăteam pe canapea, navigând pe iPhone-ul meu. S-a făcut ora șase dimineața, sună interfonul. Mă duc să răspund, nu se aude nimic. Mă întorc din nou pe canapea. Sună din nou. Se duce tata – „Poliția, deschideți”. Tata a apăsat pe buton, primindu-i pe neașteptații vizitatori în scara blocului și în nici două secunde ofițerii DIICOT Bacău și BCCO Bacău erau la ușă. Cioc, cioc – „Poliția, deschideți sau spargem ușa”. A deschis. Șapte ofițeri în civil au intrat în apartament cu mandat de percheziție și mandat de aducere pe numele meu. Mi-au răscolit toată casa, confiscându-mi toate dispozitivele pe care le aveam și micul depozit de obiecte pe care îl formasem în apartament. După aproximativ opt ore de percheziții, atât în apartamentul în care locuiam la acel moment cât și la casa părinților mei de la țară, am fost prezentat în fața unui procuror la sediul DIICOT Bacău. Menționând aici incredibila dezvoltare fizică a corpului meu (momentan am 1.80m, 54 kg) – gândiți-vă că eram mai scund și mai slab atunci – imediat ce am intrat în biroul procurorului m-a și întâmpinat cu sintagma „Marele infractor NUME AICI. Bine ai venit, ia un loc”. Dacă nu aș fi fost în situația aceea, m-ar fi bufnit un râs teribil la auzul acelor cuvinte. Dar în ciuda circumstanțelor în care mă aflam, râsul nu era chiar primul lucru pe care îmi venea să îl fac. Continuând, după încă 3 ore de audieri, mi-a spus în final lucrul pentru care mă rugasem deja de o sută de ori în gând în timp ce stăteam pe scaunul ăla din birou, cu ai mei într-o parte și avocatul în cealaltă: „Bun, noi am terminat aici. Tu o să te duci acasă acum și o să te chem eu iar altă dată. Ești liber”. Nu am putut să mai reacționez în momentul ăla, am schițat un zâmbet, am dat bună ziua și am plecat. Lucrul ălă, care la acel moment mi s-a părut cel mai bun lucru care mi s-a întâmplat în viața mea, avea să îmi schimbe în mod drastic viziunea despre lume și cum funcționează lucrurile și aveam să plătesc mult mai scump pentru asta.
Mai exact, după încă aproximativ 3 luni am început să fac din nou aceleași lucruri. În astea 3 luni am mai fost chemat o dată la DIICOT și am participat la perchezițiile informatice care au fost efectuate pe dispozitivele care mi-au fost ridicate la percheziția domicilară. În viziunea mea de atunci, am dat cu subsemnatul odată și am stat la caterincă cu niște gabori într-un birou la BCCO, care mi-au cumpărat chiar și o cafea. Ce dracu` s-ar putea întâmpla mai rău de atât?
Așadar, mi-am reînceput activitatea, cu siguranță deplină în faptul că dacă aș mai fi prins încă o dată repercursiunile ar fi fix aceleași, că mie nu o să îmi facă nimeni nimic pentru că ceea ce fac nu e atât de grav și cu un nivel de securitate mai sus în ceea ce privește modul în care făceam lucrurile. Și am continuat în felul ăsta o lungă perioadă de timp, doar că nivelul mai mare de securitate implica tranzacții mai restrânse și posibilități de monetizare mai puține, lucru care de asemenea avea să mă influențeze mai târziu.
Timpul a trecut, și iată că am ajuns în luna martie a anului 2015. Între timp judecata procesului începuse la Tribunalul Bacău și mă afișasem de mai multe ori în fața instanței, eu lipseam de la școală pentru că nu îmi plăcea și nu o consideram importantă, lucru pe care îl susțin și acum dar care s-a reflectat într-un mod negativ în raportul efectuat de Serviciul de Probațiune în ceea ce privește persoana mea (raportul fiind o procedură obligatorie în cauzele cu minori și care încearcă să formeze o imagine de ansamblu asupra inculpatului, mediului din care provine și familiei acestuia). A venit și ultima zi a procesului pe fond și dezbaterea cauzei. Printre multe alte întrebări și concluzii, judecătoarea a menționat și „Domnule Bla, văd că în ciuda insistențelor și avertismentelor pe care vi le-am dat, tot nu vă faceți ceea ce ar trebui să faceți”. Iar lucrul care m-a revoltat cel mai tare a fost remarca morală pe care tot judecătoarea a făcut-o pe un ton deloc neprietenos și pe care dacă l-aș fi folosit eu aș fi fost acuzat că am un comportament neadecvat în sala de judecată: „și eu am avut o fată la școală, chiar în alt oraș, care stătea la cămin și îi trimiteam pachete prin tren. Și chiar în felul ăsta a terminat liceul și facultatea dar nu a lipsit de la școală. Tu ai toate condițiile și facilitățile de care alții nu beneficiază și nu te interesează”.
O să fac o pauză aici ca să spun că respect toate deciziile pe care instanțele de judecată le-au luat în ceea ce mă privește, m-am supus acestora, le-am respectat întru totul și încă o fac. Dar să mi se facă o astfel de remarcă într-o sală de judecată, de către un judecător care a considerat important să compare siutația mea cu a propriului copil și să justifice prin acest mod decizia ulterioară de a mă condamna la pedeapsa maximă admisă de lege mi se pare inadmisibil și mi-a demonstrat cât de multă nedreptate există în justiția română și care e capacitatea în funcție a unor magistrați. NU contează că eu la momentul ăla comiteam din nou genul ăsta de infracțiuni fiindcă ele NU erau descoperite la acel moment și în temei legal nu existau. Singurul motiv pe care doamna judecător l-a găsit la acel moment ca să îmi aplice pedeapsa maximă a fost faptul că lipseam de la școală iar singurul mod prin care a reușit să facă din asta motivul principal în justificarea soluționării cauzei a fost să pună acest lucru într-un context subiectiv și extrem de nepotrivit într-un proces penal. Demn de menționat este și faptul că în hotărârea penală doamna judecător nu a considerat necesar să redea acest dialog, LUCRU CARE ESTE OBLIGATORIU PRIN LEGE CA ORICE DEZBATERE ȘI CONCLUZIE PUSĂ ÎN CURSUL UNUI PROCES PENAL DE ORICARE DINTRE PĂRȚI, CHIAR ȘI DE CĂTRE PREȘEDINTELE COMPLETULUI DE JUDECATĂ, SĂ FIE REDATĂ ÎN SCRIS ÎN HOTĂRÂREA PENALĂ. În schimb, a concluzionat sec, ca și motiv principal al aplicării pedepsei maxime prevăzute de lege: „pentru a avea timp să își termine studiile”. Închei scurt pauza prin a vă spune că în doi ani și jumătate de detenție nu am reușit să termin nici măcar o clasă în plus și asta strict din motive și decizii care nu au ținut de mine ci de sistemul penitenciar și legislația de rahat.
Revenind, după ultimul cuvânt mi s-a spus că rămân în pronunțare peste două săptămâni, ceea ce însemna că în fix două săptămâni de la acel moment avea să se desfășoare o altă ședință la tribunal, fără participarea mea ori a avocatului ci doar a judecătorului și a procurorului, în care urma să fie decisă sentința penală. La momentul ăla nu știam exact ce urmează să se întâmple, dar având asigurarea avocatului și a altor persoane în domeniu pe care le-am consultat, respectiv că „o să îți aplice o măsură neprivativă de libertate, cel mai probabil libertatea supravegheată. Nu ai ce să pățești, că aveai 14 ani când ai făcut faptele, ai recunoscut și ai colaborat, chiar nu are ce să ți se întâmple”. Bazându-mă astfel pe aceste cuvinte, nu am acordat prea multă importanță la ceea ce avea să se întâmple…
Iar ceea ce avea să se întâmple m-a lovit pe neașteptate. În ziua pronunțării, lucru de care nici nu îmi mai amintisem deoarece nu aveam nici un motiv să mă îngrijorez, aveam să aflu într-un mod extrem de neplăcut care a fost soluția dată de judecătoare.
Ora 15:00. Stau la calculator. Vine maică-mea să mă întrebe:
– „Ia vezi, nu a apărut pe net pronunțarea?
– Nu a apărut, nu cred că apare azi că nu le bagă ăștia pe Internet în aceeași zi. Ne uităm mâine”, am spus eu, cu total dezinteres față de ceea ce putea să se întâmple și evitând astfel să îmi întrerup activitatea extrem de interesantă pe care o desfășuram în momentul ăla de a naviga pe reddit.
Ora 19:00. Tot la calculator, plictisit, îmi trece prin minte ce m-a întrebat maică-mea. „Ia să văd eu mă, nu a apărut totuși aia?”. Tribunalul Bacău. Dosare. Număr 3952/110/2014. ”[…] aplică inculpatului minor BLA BLA BLA măsura educativă privativă de libertate a internării într-un centru de detenție pe o perioadă de cinci ani”. Fuck. FUCK. FUCK FUCK FUCK FUCK. O, Doamne. O, nu. Doamne, ce mă fac?! Ce dracu` se întâmplă, nu se poate! Apucă ghiozdanul. Bagă laptopul în el. Uită-te în portofel. 100 lei. Băga-mi-aș pula, ce să fac cu 100 de lei? Uită-te repede pe stradă să nu vină poliția. Ok, nu vine încă. Scrie bilet de adio părinților în care le spui că nu poți să mergi la pușcărie și că o să îi cauți tu. Scrie că îți pare rău. Fugi mâncând pământul că poate să vină garda în orice moment și să te ia. Mergi în stația de microbuz. Ia primul microbuz până în Bacău (la momentul acțiunii eram la casa alor mei de la țară). Ajungi în oraș, mai ai 80 de lei. Îți iei ceva de mâncare și un suc, te duci în parc pe o bancă și te așezi. Încerci să îți aduni gândurile, să pui totul cap la cap, să găsești o soluție ca să ieși din situația asta nasoală, dar oricât de mult încerci nu funcționează. Nimic nu mai funcționează, creierul tău nu poate să proceseze informația în mod coerent și mintea ți s-a dat peste cap, în același timp ai un milion de gânduri și de idei dar parcă capul îți e gol fiindcă chestiile doar îți zboară prin cap aleatoriu dar nu se opresc. Ore întregi petrecute pe banca aia nenorocită, într-o seară cu puțin peste zero grade și îmbrăcat doar cu un tricou și o jachetă subțire. Te culci acolo până a doua zi dimineață sperând că mâine o să găsești o soluție sau că mâine poate nu o să te mai trezești și astfel nu o să mai fie nevoie să găsești soluția.
Referință aici la piticigratis.com. Radu, cel care are site-ul, la momentul ăla avea o rubrică numită „sfaturi gratis”, adică întrebai orice și ți se răspunea. I-am trimis mail în ziua aia și i-am spus în ce situație sunt. Omul mi-a răspuns că fără bani chiar nu am ce să fac, și în orice caz până la urmă tot mă găsesc ăștia. Mi-a spus că da, e nasol la pușcărie, dar nu ai ce să faci, cel mai bine e să îți asumi și să mergi să îți execuți pedeapsa. Până la urmă trece. Mersi, Radu, că la momentul ăla sfatul ăsta mi-a prins extrem de bine și cine știe ce alt căcat aș mai fi făcut dacă nu erai tu cu mailul salvator la momentul potrivit.
Continuând povestea, am mers în piață, am mers la un țigan și am luat un telefon cu 20 de lei. Am sunat-o pe maică-mea, i-am explicat extrem de grăbit ce s-a întâmplat, cât de coerent am putut pentru că încă nu mă obișnuisem cu ideea, iar ea printre plânsetele pe care le avea din cauza faptului că nu știa unde sunt și ce am făcut, a reușit să mă calmeze spunându-mi că nu mă închide nimeni, că decizia nu e definitivă și că poate fi atacată prin apel, lucru pe care deja l-a făcut avocatul. Și pentru a doua oară am simțit că ăla a fost cel mai bun lucru care mi s-a întâmplat vreodată.
Ca să mai scurtez din articol că scriu de vreo trei ore și nu pot să iau fiecare lucru în parte într-un singur articol ca să-l detaliez și o singură zi nu îmi ajunge pentru treaba asta, dar e posibil ca pe viitor să revin și cu partea a doua dacă o să consider necesar – între timp dosarul a intrat în apel, iar în iulie 2017 am fost la ședința de judecată unde mi s-a acordat un nou și ultim termen pentru a îmi pregăti apărarea, cu mențiunea explicită făcută de judecător că „ăsta chiar e ultimul termen. La următorul luăm soluția definitivă”. Lucru care m-a făcut chiar în acel moment să iau propria mea decizie definitivă că nu o să las lucrurile în voia sorții și că o să decid singur și prin propriile mijloace dacă merg sau nu la pușcărie, că nu o să aștept din nou decizia unui alt om în privința libertății și vieții mele.
Astfel că am deliberat. O să fac bani și o să fug. Plec din țară. Îmi schimb înfățișarea, îmi fac acte, fac rost de bani iar după pa și pusi. Mă duce capul cât să mă descurc să fac și bani și să nu fiu nici prins. Gaborii sunt idioți și nu or să poată face nimic.
Deci, am început cu primul pas, să fac bani. Aici trebuie să spun că și până în momentul ăla, cum am menționat și anterior, făceam încă infracțiuni prin internet și făceam și bani. Dar nu îndeajuns pentru treaba asta. Pentru treaba asta îmi trebuiau bani serioși și aveam de gând să îi fac cât mai repede cu putință. Iar faptul că trebuia să fac mulți și repede m-a silit să renunț la unele măsuri de precauție pe care le-aș fi luat în mod normal ca să mă asigur că nu poate să mă depisteze nimeni în legătură cu operațiunile pe care le făceam. Iar lucrul ăsta a fost și cel din urmă care m-a făcut să îmi pierd libertatea.
Menționez că eram și depedent de pariuri sportive la momentul ăla, ca să se înțeleagă.
Apucă-te și fă bani. Propune-ți ca în două săptămâni să faci 10.000 euro. Faci mai mult de 10.000 euro după două săptămâni. „Hai să-i înmulțesc, să fac mai mulți că am nevoie.” Îi joci la pariuri, pierzi. Repetă cu 20.000. Același rezultat. Repetă cu și mai mulți dar fă aceeași greșeală din nou și din nou și din nou. Între timp se instalează paranoia, știi că greșești și știi că asta implică riscuri, că ai putea fi prins. Legea spune că nu au voie să intre peste tine înainte de șase dimineața. Pui alarma la cinci și ai bagajul pregătit în fiecare dimineață, în caz că vine garda ți-ai luat geanta și ai fugit (la momentul ăla locuiam tot la casa de la țară la ai mei – ideea era că eu îi pot vedea venind pe șosea înainte să ajungă la mine și pot fugi prin spatele casei într-un timp de reacție decent, cu un avantaj de cel puțin două minute și jumătate cât le ia să spargă o poartă din fier masiv). Ți-e frică totuși, în interiorul tău ai sentimentul că ceva s-ar putea să nu meargă bine, că ȘTII că ceva nu o să meargă bine. Totuși, stick with the plan. Reușești și pui ceva bani deoparte, pe ăștia i-ai fentat cumva de la a deveni parte din profitul caselor de pariuri. Ia-ți chirie în Berlin. Ia-ți acte false. Ia-ți mașină să te scoată din țară. Toate astea costă și nu ai destul cât să îți ajungă pentru toate întrucât să ai totul pus la punct perfect. Zici că pleci peste două zile, amâni. Vine ziua, amâni iar. „Până la urmă lasă, fac cât pot și cu o zi înainte de proces plec. În ziua când vine condamnarea eu o sa fiu deja ieșit din țară, o să fiu chiar în spațiul Schengen și de acolo mă mișc mult mai ușor. E ok. O să meargă”. Ziua procesului era pe 22 septembrie 2015.
14 septembrie 2015. Noaptea trecută de abea ai dormit, de fapt așa e în fiecare noapte că de mult nu ai mai dormit cum trebuie. Nu mai poți să dormi, cum dracului să mai dormi când știi în ce situație de căcat ești. Faci exact ceea ce ai făcut în fiecare zi până atunci, bani. Dar de ceva timp nici pe ăștia nu mai poți să îi faci cum trebuie. Ai început să îți asumi riscuri mai mari dar banii sunt tot mai puțini. Pur și simplu nu mai merge. Nu mai merge și gata. Nu ai noroc în viață. Stres maxim, nu știi ce să faci. Vine noaptea și te gândești că lasă, mâine o să iasă mai bine. Vrei să te culci. Ca de obicei, intră rutina paranoică în funcțiune. Bagaj – verificat. Bani – verificat. Acte – verificat. Alarmă la telefon – verificat (eu nu mă trezesc fără alarmă. Nici atunci și nici acum). Pui telefonul sub pernă ca să fii sigur că îl auzi. Pui capul pe pernă și încerci să adormi. Mai trec câteva minute – beep beep beep – your iPhone battery is under 10%. „Futu-ți morții mă-tii”. Vrei să îl pui la încărcat, dar ești deja super obosit și parcă îți pică ochii în cap. Nu știi ce să faci. „Lasă, îmi bag pula, nu au venit până acum nu or să vină nici mâine. NU SE POATE SĂ VINĂ CHIAR MÂINE. NU AR FI CORECT”. Pui capul pe pernă și adormi.
15 septembrie 2015. Ora 06:00. Zgomot. Gălăgie. Nu ai timp să reacționezi pentru că primul lucru pe care îl auzi fix în momentul în care creierul tău a ieșit din starea de somn e „Poliția, deschide. Deschide bă că spargem ușa!”. Primul lucru care îl vezi sunt mascații postați în fața ușii tale. Au intrat. Mandat de percheziție și mandat de aducere.
VIAȚĂ 1 – 0 TU
Iar după aceea, am fost dus la Cluj. Reținut, arestat preventiv, condamnat, liberat condiționat în martie 2018. Mai pe scurt, trimis între tot felul de nenorociți, criminali, violatori și așa mai departe, în niște condiții mizere și mult prea josnice pentru demintatea unei ființe umane. Dar despre subiectul ăsta o să scriu alt articol, altă dată. Momentan e de ajuns.
Povestioară scurtă de final: Când au venit băieții de la Cluj cu mascații peste mine, eu am vrut să fac pe băiatul bun care colaborează că poate scap cumva ca și prima dată, adică mă duc să dau o declarație și mă întorc. Dar am dus planul într-atât de departe, încât într-o fracțiune de secundă înainte ca ei să intre peste mine deja m-am gândit la toată desfășurarea poveștii ăsteia în modul mai sus-menționat, așa că am ascuns repede portofelul cu toți banii în pernă și am tras fermoarul gândindu-mă că după ce mă întorc acasă tot o să am nevoie de ei să fug. După ce au intrat am făcut pe inocentul și le-am dat tot ce au vrut cu indicații precise – „da, mai am și un laptop ascuns acolo, mai sunt și telefoanele alea prin mașină, mai am și niște hard-diskuri aruncate pe colo, dar stați să vedeți că vă dau și parolele de la toate conturile mele, uitați, haideți să deschidem PC-ul să vedeți că nu vă mint. Vă dau tot. Da` stați să vedeți că vă dau chiar și date despre ăla despre care știu eu că mai face că i-am luat toate informațiile, e un hacker d`ăsta de prin București” – „Auzi, băiatu`*, da` banii, banii unde sunt? Că știm că ai și de ăia. Dă și banii dacă tot ești tu așa de colaborativ”*. – Stai dom`le așa că banii nu îi am în cash că i-am transformat pe toți în Bitcoin că știam că veniți. Da` nu îi mai vreau, vă dau tot. Vrei să îți dau adresa de la portofelul Bitcoin? Hai că ți-o dau. Uite acuma îți dau datele. Vrei să le și verificăm? Acuma` le verificăm, nu e nicio problemă. Eu sunt băiat serios.
Ăia chiar au mușcat-o și m-au crezut, desigur, fără să încerce să verifice datele pe care eu le-am oferit de la un portofel de Bitcoin care nici măcar nu exista pentru că nu puteau să facă asta atunci, lucrurile astea urmau să se facă pe parcursul anchetei. Urmau să plece din camera mea să continue percheziția și în restul casei. Au ieșit civilii, ies și eu. Un mascat în fața mea și unul în spate. Dau să ies din cameră, mă trage ăla din spate – „ia stai bă așa.”. Se uită la pernă, i se pare că stătea puțin strâmb, după cum chiar el mi-a zis în mașină. Băi, puțin strâmb. Adică PUȚIN. Și stătea așa fix din cauză că portofelul era umflat cu bani. Se oprește, ia perna și o întoarce. Ditamai umflătura. Deschide fermoarul – începe să plouă cu bani. Băi, curgeau, la propriu, parcă era Dunărea când se varsă în Marea Neagră. „Ia veniți colegii înapoi că am mai găsit ceva”. La care reacția ofițerilor BCCO care desfășurau percheziția a fost „ia uite măi, unde era portofelul lui virtual. În pernă.”

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An extensive list of blockchain courses, resources and articles to help you get a job working with blockchain.

u/Maximus_no and me spent some time at work collecting and analyzing learning material for blockchain development. The list contains resources for developers, as well as business analysts/consultants looking to learn more about blockchain use-cases and solutions.

Certifications and Courses

IIB Council
Link to course: IIB council : Certified Blockchain Professional
C|BP is an In-Depth, Industry Agnostic, Hands-On Training and Certification Course specifically tailored for Industry Professionals and Developers interested in implementing emerging technologies in the Data-Driven Markets and Digitized Economies.
The IIB Council Certified Blockchain Professional (C|BP) Course was developed to help respective aspiring professionals gain excessive knowledge in Blockchain technology and its implication on businesses.
WHO IS IT FOR:

Professionals

C|BP is developed in line with the latest industry trends to help current and aspiring Professionals evolve in their career by implementing the latest knowledge in blockchain technology. This course will help professionals understand the foundation of Blockchain technology and the opportunities this emerging technology is offering.

Developers

If you are a Developer and you are willing to learn blockchain technology this course is for you. You will learn to build and model Blockchain solutions and Blockchain-based applications for enterprises and businesses in multiple Blockchain Technologies.

Certified Blockchain Business Foundations (CBBF)

This exam is designed for non-technical business professionals who require basic knowledge about Blockchain and how it will be executed within an organization. This exam is NOT appropriate for technology professionals seeking to gain deeper understanding of Blockchain technology implementation or programming.

A person who holds this certification demonstrates their knowledge of:

· What is Blockchain? (What exactly is it?)
· Non-Technical Technology Overview (How does it work?)
· Benefits of Blockchain (Why should anyone consider this?)
· Use Cases (Where and for what apps is it appropriate?)
· Adoption (Who is using it and for what?)
· Future of Blockchain (What is the future?)

Certified Blockchain Solution Architect (CBSA)

A person who holds this certification demonstrates their ability to:

· Architect blockchain solutions
· Work effectively with blockchain engineers and technical leaders
· Choose appropriate blockchain systems for various use cases
· Work effectively with both public and permissioned blockchain systems

This exam will prove that a student completely understands:

· The difference between proof of work, proof of stake, and other proof systems and why they exist
· Why cryptocurrency is needed on certain types of blockchains
· The difference between public, private, and permissioned blockchains
· How blocks are written to the blockchain
· Where cryptography fits into blockchain and the most commonly used systems
· Common use cases for public blockchains
· Common use cases for private & permissioned blockchains
· What is needed to launch your own blockchain
· Common problems & considerations in working with public blockchains
· Awareness of the tech behind common blockchains
· When is mining needed and when it is not
· Byzantine Fault Tolerance
· Consensus among blockchains
· What is hashing
· How addresses, public keys, and private keys work
· What is a smart contract
· Security in blockchain
· Brief history of blockchain
· The programming languages of the most common blockchains
· Common testing and deployment practices for blockchains and blockchain-based apps

Certified Blockchain Developer - Ethereum (CBDE)

A person who holds this certification demonstrates their ability to:

· Plan and prepare production ready applications for the Ethereum blockchain
· Write, test, and deploy secure Solidity smart contracts
· Understand and work with Ethereum fees
· Work within the bounds and limitations of the Ethereum blockchain
· Use the essential tooling and systems needed to work with the Ethereum ecosystem

This exam will prove that a student completely understands how to:

· Implement web3.js
· Write and compile Solidity smart contracts
· Create secure smart contracts
· Deploy smart contracts both the live and test Ethereum networks
· Calculate Ethereum gas costs
· Unit test smart contracts
· Run an Ethereum node on development machines

Princeton: Sixty free lectures from Princeton on bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. Avg length ~15 mins

Basic course with focus on Bitcoin. After this course, you’ll know everything you need to be able to separate fact from fiction when reading claims about Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. You’ll have the conceptual foundations you need to engineer secure software that interacts with the Bitcoin network. And you’ll be able to integrate ideas from Bitcoin in your own projects.

MIT : BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGIES: BUSINESS INNOVATION AND APPLICATION

· A mid / basic understanding of blockchain technology and its long-term implications for business, coupled with knowledge of its relationship to other emerging technologies such as AI and IoT
· An economic framework for identifying blockchain-based solutions to challenges within your own context, guided by the knowledge of cryptoeconomics expert Christian Catalini
· Recognition of your newfound blockchain knowledge in the form of a certificate of completion from the MIT Sloan School of Management — one of the world’s leading business schools
Orientation Module: Welcome to Your Online Campus
Module 1: An introduction to blockchain technology
Module 2: Bitcoin and the curse of the double-spending problem
Module 3: Costless verification: Blockchain technology and the last mile problem
Module 4: Bootstrapping network effects through blockchain technology and cryptoeconomics
Module 5: Using tokens to design new types of digital platforms
Module 6: The future of blockchain technology, AI, and digital privacy

Oxford Blockchain Strategy Programme

· A mid / basic understanding of what blockchain is and how it works, as well as insights into how it will affect the future of industry and of your organization.
· The ability to make better strategic business decisions by utilizing the Oxford Blockchain Strategic framework, the Oxford Blockchain Regulation framework, the Oxford Blockchain Ecosystem map, and drawing on your knowledge of blockchain and affiliated industries and technologies.
· A certificate of attendance from Oxford Saïd as validation of your newfound blockchain knowledge and skills, as well as access to a global network of like-minded business leaders and innovators.
Module 1: Understanding blockchain
Module 2: The blockchain ecosystem
Module 3: Innovations in value transfer
Module 4: Decentralized apps and smart contracts
Module 5: Transforming enterprise business models
Module 6: Blockchain frontiers

Resources and Articles

Introduction to Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/cloud/library/cl-blockchain-basics-intro-bluemix-trs/
Tomas’s Personal Favourite: 150+ Resources for going from web-dev to blockchain engineer https://github.com/benstew/blockchain-for-software-engineers
Hyperledger Frameworks Hyperledger is widely regarded as the most mature open-source framework for building private & permissioned blockchains.
Tutorials: https://www.hyperledger.org/resources/training
R3 Corda Open-source developer frameworks for building private, permissioned blockchains. A little better than Hyperledger on features like privacy and secure channels. Used mostly in financial applications.
Ethereum, Solidity, dApps and Smart-Contracts
Ethereum & Solidity Course (favourite): https://www.udemy.com/ethereum-and-solidity-the-complete-developers-guide/
An Introduction to Ethereum’s Token Standards: https://medium.com/coinmonks/anatomy-of-an-erc-an-exhaustive-survey-8bc1a323b541
How To Create Your First ERC20 Token: https://medium.com/bitfwd/how-to-do-an-ico-on-ethereum-in-less-than-20-minutes-a0062219374
Ethereum Developer Tools [Comprehensive List]: https://github.com/ConsenSys/ethereum-developer-tools-list/blob/masteREADME.md
CryptoZombies – Learn to code dApps through game-development: https://cryptozombies.io/
Intro to Ethereum Development: https://hackernoon.com/ethereum-development-walkthrough-part-1-smart-contracts-b3979e6e573e
Notes from Consensys Academy Participant (free): https://github.com/ScottWorks/ConsenSys-Academy-Notes
AWS Ethereum Templates: https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/get-started-with-blockchain-using-the-new-aws-blockchain-templates/
Create dApps with better user-experience: https://blog.hellobloom.io/how-to-make-a-user-friendly-ethereum-dapp-5a7e5ea6df22
Solidity YouTube Course: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCaWes1eWQ9TbzA695gl_PtA
[UX &UI] Designing a decentralized profile dApp: https://uxdesign.cc/designing-a-decentralized-profile-dapp-ab12ead4ab56
Scaling Solutions on Ethereum: https://media.consensys.net/the-state-of-scaling-ethereum-b4d095dbafae
Different Platforms for dApps and Smart-Contracts
While Ethereum is the most mature dApp framework with both the best developer tools, resources and community, there are other public blockchain platforms. Third generation blockchains are trying to solve Ethereum’s scaling and performance issues. Here is an overview of dApp platforms that can be worth looking into:
NEO - https://neo.org/ The second most mature dApp platform. NEO has better scalability and performance than Ethereum and has 1’000 TPS to ETH’s 15 by utilizing a dBFT consensus algorithm. While better infrastructure, NEO does not have the maturity of Ethereum’s developer tools, documentation and community.
A writeup on why a company chose to develop on NEO and not Ethereum: https://medium.com/orbismesh/why-we-chose-neo-over-ethereum-37fc9208ffa0
Cardano - https://www.cardano.org/en/home/ While still in alpha with a long and ambitious roadmap ahead of it, Cardano is one of the most anticipated dApp platforms out there. IOHK, the research and engineering company that maintains Cardano, has listed a lot of great resources and scientific papers that is worth looking into.
An Intro to Cardano: https://hackernoon.com/cardano-ethereum-and-neo-killer-or-overhyped-and-overpriced-8fcd5f8abcdf
IOHK Scientific Papers - https://iohk.io/research/papers/
Stellar - https://www.stellar.org/ If moving value fast from one party to another by using smart-contracts is the goal, Stellar Lumens is your platform. Initially as an open-source fork from Ripple, Stellar has become one of the mature frameworks for financial applications. Stellar’s focus lies in interoperability with legacy financial systems and cheap/fast value transfer. It’s smart-contract capability is rather limited in comparison to Ethereum and HyperLedger, so take that in consideration.
Ripplewww.ripple.com Ripple and its close cousin, Stellar, is two of the most well-known cryptocurrencies and DLT frameworks meant for the financial sector. Ripple enables instant settlement between banks for international transactions.

Consensus Algorithms

[Proof of Work] - very short, cuz it's well-known.
[1] Bitcoin - to generate a new block miner must generate hash of the new block header that is in line with given requirements.
Others: Ethereum, Litecoin etc.
[Hybrid of PoW and PoS]
[2] Decred - hybrid of “proof of work” and “proof of stake”. Blocks are created about every 5 minutes. Nodes in the network looking for a solution with a known difficulty to create a block (PoW). Once the solution is found it is broadcast to the network. The network then verifies the solution. Stakeholders who have locked some DCR in return for a ticket* now have the chance to vote on the block (PoS). 5 tickets are chosen pseudo-randomly from the ticket pool and if at least 3 of 5 vote ‘yes’ the block is permanently added to the blockchain. Both miners and voters are compensated with DCR : PoS - 30% and PoW - 60% of about 30 new Decred issued with a block. * 1 ticket = ability to cast 1 vote. Stakeholders must wait an average of 28 days (8,192 blocks) to vote their tickets.
[Proof of Stake]
[3] Nxt - The more tokens are held by account, the greater chance that account will earn the right to generate a block. The total reward received as a result of block generation is the sum of the transaction fees located within the block. Three values are key to determining which account is eligible to generate a block, which account earns the right to generate a block, and which block is taken to be the authoritative one in times of conflict: base target value, target value and cumulative difficulty. Each block on the chain has a generation signature parameter. To participate in the block's forging process, an active account digitally signs the generation signature of the previous block with its own public key. This creates a 64-byte signature, which is then hashed using SHA256. The first 8 bytes of the resulting hash are converted to a number, referred to as the account hit. The hit is compared to the current target value(active balance). If the computed hit is lower than the target, then the next block can be generated.
[4] Peercoin (chain-based proof of stake) - coin age parameter. Hybrid PoW and PoS algorithm. The longer your Peercoins have been stationary in your account (to a maximum of 90 days), the more power (coin age) they have to mint a block. The act of minting a block requires the consumption of coin age value, and the network determines consensus by selecting the chain with the largest total consumed coin age. Reward - minting + 1% yearly.
[5] Reddcoin (Proof of stake Velocity) - quite similar to Peercoin, difference: not linear coin-aging function (new coins gain weight quickly, and old coins gain weight increasingly slowly) to encourage Nodes Activity. Node with most coin age weight have a bigger chance to create block. To create block Node should calculate right hash. Block reward - interest on the weighted age of coins/ 5% annual interest in PoSV phase.
[6] Ethereum (Casper) - uses modified BFT consensus. Blocks will be created using PoW. In the Casper Phase 1 implementation for Ethereum, the “proposal mechanism" is the existing proof of work chain, modified to have a greatly reduced block reward. Blocks will be validated by set of Validators. Block is finalised when 2/3 of validators voted for it (not the number of validators is counted, but their deposit size). Block creator rewarded with Block Reward + Transaction FEES.
[7] Lisk (Delegated Proof-of-stake) - Lisk stakeholders vote with vote transaction (the weight of the vote depends on the amount of Lisk the stakeholder possess) and choose 101 Delegates, who create all blocks in the blockchain. One delegate creates 1 block within 1 round (1 round contains 101 blocks) -> At the beginning of each round, each delegate is assigned a slot indicating their position in the block generation process -> Delegate includes up to 25 transactions into the block, signs it and broadcasts it to the network -> As >51% of available peers agreed that this block is acceptable to be created (Broadhash consensus), a new block is added to the blockchain. *Any account may become a delegate, but only accounts with the required stake (no info how much) are allowed to generate blocks. Block reward - minted Lisks and transaction fees (fees for all 101 blocks are collected firstly and then are divided between delegates). Blocks appears every 10 sec.
[8] Cardano (Ouroboros Proof of Stake) - Blocks(slots) are created by Slot Leaders. Slot Leaders for N Epoch are chosen during n-1 Epoch. Slot Leaders are elected from the group of ADA stakeholders who have enough stake. Election process consist of 3 phases: Commitment phase: each elector generates a random value (secret), signs it and commit as message to network (other electors) saved in to block. -> Reveal phase: Each elector sends special value to open a commitment, all this values (opening) are put into the block. -> Recovery phase: each elector verifies that commitments and openings match and extracts the secrets and forms a SEED (randomly generated bytes string based on secrets). All electors get the same SEED. -> Follow the Satoshi algorithm : Elector who have coin which corresponded to SEED become a SLOT LEADER and get a right to create a block. Slot Leader is rewarded with minted ADA and transactions Fee.
[9] Tezos (Proof Of Stake) - generic and self-amending crypto-ledger. At the beginning of each cycle (2048 blocks), a random seed is derived from numbers that block miners chose and committed to in the penultimate cycle, and revealed in the last. -> Using this random seed, a follow the coin strategy (similar to Follow The Satoshi) is used to allocate mining rights and signing rights to stakeholders for the next cycle*. -> Blocks are mined by a random stakeholder (the miner) and includes multiple signatures of the previous block provided by random stakeholders (the signers). Mining and signing both offer a small reward but also require making a one cycle safety deposit to be forfeited in the event of a double mining or double signing.
· the more coins (rolls) you have - the more your chance to be a minesigner.
[10] Tendermint (Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - A proposal is signed and published by the designated proposer at each round. The proposer is chosen by a deterministic and non-choking round robin selection algorithm that selects proposers in proportion to their voting power. The proposer create the block, that should be validated by >2/3 of Validators, as follow: Propose -> Prevote -> Precommit -> Commit. Proposer rewarded with Transaction FEES.
[11] Tron (Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - This blockhain is still on development stage. Consensus algorithm = PoS + BFT (similar to Tendermint): PoS algorithm chooses a node as Proposer, this node has the power to generate a block. -> Proposer broadcasts a block that it want to release. -> Block enters the Prevote stage. It takes >2/3 of nodes' confirmations to enter the next stage. -> As the block is prevoted, it enters Precommit stage and needs >2/3 of node's confirmation to go further. -> As >2/3 of nodes have precommited the block it's commited to the blockchain with height +1. New blocks appears every 15 sec.
[12] NEO (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - Consensus nodes* are elected by NEO holders -> The Speaker is identified (based on algorithm) -> He broadcasts proposal to create block -> Each Delegate (other consensus nodes) validates proposal -> Each Delegate sends response to other Delegates -> Delegate reaches consensus after receiving 2/3 positive responses -> Each Delegate signs the block and publishes it-> Each Delegate receives a full block. Block reward 6 GAS distributed proportionally in accordance with the NEO holding ratio among NEO holders. Speaker rewarded with transaction fees (mostly 0). * Stake 1000 GAS to nominate yourself for Bookkeeping(Consensus Node)
[13] EOS (Delegated Proof of Stake) - those who hold tokens on a blockchain adopting the EOS.IO software may select* block producers through a continuous approval voting system and anyone may choose to participate in block production and will be given an opportunity to produce blocks proportional to the total votes they have received relative to all other producers. At the start of each round 21 unique block producers are chosen. The top 20 by total approval are automatically chosen every round and the last producer is chosen proportional to their number of votes relative to other producers. Block should be confirmed by 2/3 or more of elected Block producers. Block Producer rewarded with Block rewards. *the more EOS tokens a stakeholder owns, the greater their voting power
[The XRP Ledger Consensus Process]
[14] Ripple - Each node receives transaction from external applications -> Each Node forms public list of all valid (not included into last ledger (=block)) transactions aka (Candidate Set) -> Nodes merge its candidate set with UNLs(Unique Node List) candidate sets and vote on the veracity of all transactions (1st round of consensus) -> all transactions that received at least 50% votes are passed on the next round (many rounds may take place) -> final round of consensus requires that min 80% of Nodes UNL agreeing on transactions. It means that at least 80% of Validating nodes should have same Candidate SET of transactions -> after that each Validating node computes a new ledger (=block) with all transactions (with 80% UNL agreement) and calculate ledger hash, signs and broadcasts -> All Validating nodes compare their ledgers hash -> Nodes of the network recognize a ledger instance as validated when a 80% of the peers have signed and broadcast the same validation hash. -> Process repeats. Ledger creation process lasts 5 sec(?). Each transaction includes transaction fee (min 0,00001 XRP) which is destroyed. No block rewards.
[The Stellar consensus protocol]
[15] Stellar (Federated Byzantine Agreement) - quite similar to Ripple. Key difference - quorum slice.
[Proof of Burn]
[16] Slimcoin - to get the right to write blocks Node should “burn” amount of coins. The more coins Node “burns” more chances it has to create blocks (for long period) -> Nodes address gets a score called Effective Burnt Coins that determines chance to find blocks. Block creator rewarded with block rewards.
[Proof of Importance]
[17] NEM - Only accounts that have min 10k vested coins are eligible to harvest (create a block). Accounts with higher importance scores have higher probabilities of harvesting a block. The higher amount of vested coins, the higher the account’s Importance score. And the higher amount of transactions that satisfy following conditions: - transactions sum min 1k coins, - transactions made within last 30 days, - recipient have 10k vested coins too, - the higher account’s Important score. Harvester is rewarded with fees for the transactions in the block. A new block is created approx. every 65 sec.
[Proof of Devotion]
[18] Nebulas (Proof of Devotion + BFT) - quite similar to POI, the PoD selects the accounts with high influence. All accounts are ranked according to their liquidity and propagation (Nebulas Rank) -> Top-ranked accounts are selected -> Chosen accounts pay deposit and are qualified as the blocks Validators* -> Algorithm pseudo-randomly chooses block Proposer -> After a new block is proposed, Validators Set (each Validator is charged a deposit) participate in a round of BFT-Style voting to verify block (1. Prepare stage -> 2. Commit Stage. Validators should have > 2/3 of total deposits to validate Block) -> Block is added. Block rewards : each Validator rewarded with 1 NAS. *Validators Set is dynamic, changes in Set may occur after Epoch change.
[IOTA Algorithm]
[19] IOTA - uses DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph) instead of blockchain (TANGLE equal to Ledger). Graph consist of transactions (not blocks). To issue a new transaction Node must approve 2 random other Transactions (not confirmed). Each transaction should be validate n(?) times. By validating PAST(2) transactions whole Network achieves Consensus. in Order to issue transaction Node: 1. Sign transaction with private key 2. choose two other Transactions to validate based on MCMC(Markov chain Monte Carlo) algorithm, check if 2 transactions are valid (node will never approve conflicting transactions) 3. make some PoW(similar to HashCash). -> New Transaction broadcasted to Network. Node don’t receive reward or fee.
[PBFT + PoW]
[20] Yobicash - uses PBFT and also PoW. Nodes reach consensus on transactions by querying other nodes. A node asks its peers about the state of a transaction: if it is known or not, and if it is a doublespending transaction or not. As follow : Node receives new transaction -> Checks if valid -> queries all known nodes for missing transactions (check if already in DAG ) -> queries 2/3 nodes for doublepsending and possibility -> if everything is ok add to DAG. Reward - nodes receive transaction fees + minting coins.
[Proof of Space/Proof of Capacity]
[21] Filecoin (Power Fault Tolerance) - the probability that the network elects a miner(Leader) to create a new block (it is referred to as the voting power of the miner) is proportional to storage currently in use in relation to the rest of the network. Each node has Power - storage in use verified with Proof of Spacetime by nodes. Leaders extend the chain by creating a block and propagating it to the network. There can be an empty block (when no leader). A block is committed if the majority of the participants add their weight on the chain where the block belongs to, by extending the chain or by signing blocks. Block creator rewarded with Block reward + transaction fees.
[Proof of Elapsed Time (POET)]
[22] Hyperledger Sawtooth - Goal - to solve BFT Validating Nodes limitation. Works only with intel’s SGX. PoET uses a random leader election model or a lottery based election model based on SGX, where the protocol randomly selects the next leader to finalize the block. Every validator requests a wait time from an enclave (a trusted function). -> The validator with the shortest wait time for a particular transaction block is elected the leader. -> The BlockPublisher is responsible for creating candidate blocks to extend the current chain. He takes direction from the consensus algorithm for when to create a block and when to publish a block. He creates, Finalizes, Signs Block and broadcast it -> Block Validators check block -> Block is created on top of blockchain.
[23] Byteball (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - only verified nodes are allowed to be Validation nodes (list of requirements https://github.com/byteball/byteball-witness). Users choose in transaction set of 12 Validating nodes. Validating nodes(Witnesses) receive transaction fees.
[24] Nano - uses DAG, PoW (HashCash). Nano uses a block-lattice structure. Each account has its own blockchain (account-chain) equivalent to the account’s transaction/balance history. To add transaction user should make some HashCash PoW -> When user creates transaction Send Block appears on his blockchain and Receive block appears on Recipients blockchain. -> Peers in View receive Block -> Peers verify block (Double spending and check if already in the ledger) -> Peers achieve consensus and add block. In case of Fork (when 2 or more signed blocks reference the same previous block): Nano network resolves forks via a balance-weighted voting system where representative nodes vote for the block they observe, as >50% of weighted votes received, consensus achieved and block is retained in the Node’s ledger (block that lose the vote is discarded).
[25] Holochain - uses distributed hash table (DHT). Instead of trying to manage global consensus for every change to a huge blockchain ledger, every participant has their own signed hash chain. In case of multi-party transaction, it is signed to each party's chain. Each party signs the exact same transaction with links to each of their previous chain entries. After data is signed to local chains, it is shared to a DHT where every neighbor node validate it. Any consensus algorithms can be built on top of Holochain.
[26] Komodo ('Delegated' Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW)) - end-to-end blockchain solutions. DPoW consensus mechanism does not recognize The Longest Chain Rule to resolve a conflict in the network, instead the dPoW looks to backups it inserted previously into the chosen PoW blockchain. The process of inserting backups of Komodo transactions into a secure PoW is “notarization.” Notarisation is performed by the elected Notary nodes. Roughly every ten minutes, the Notary nodes perform a special block hash mined on the Komodo blockchain and take note of the overall Komodo blockchain “height”. The notary nodes process this specifc block so that their signatures are cryptographically included within the content of the notarized data. There are sixty-four “Notary nodes” elected by a stake-weighted vote, where ownership of KMD represents stake in the election. They are a special type of blockchain miner, having certain features in their underlying code that enable them to maintain an effective and cost-efcient blockchain and they periodically receives the privilege to mine a block on “easy difculty.”
Source: https://www.reddit.com/CryptoTechnology/comments/7znnq8/my_brief_observation_of_most_common_consensus/
Whitepapers Worth Looking Into:
IOTA -http://iotatoken.com/IOTA_Whitepaper.pdf
NANO -https://nano.org/en/whitepaper
Bitcoin -https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf
Ethereum: https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper
Ethereum Plasma (Omise-GO) -https://plasma.io/plasma.pdf
Cardano - https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/889.pdf
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Bitcoin-Mine: Hier werden Millionen verdient  Galileo ... USI Tech Compounding Calculator Multi Currency USD, AUD ... Mining Bitcoin and Crypto Currencies; Calculator Presented ... bitcoin calculator YouTube

Accurate Bitcoin mining calculator trusted by millions of cryptocurrency miners since May 2013 - developed by an OG Bitcoin miner looking to maximize on mining profits and calculate ROI for new ASIC miners. Updated in 2020, the newest version of the Bitcoin mining calculator makes it simple and easy to quickly calculate mining profitability for your Bitcoin mining hardware. Find out what your expected return is depending on your hash rate and electricity cost. Find out if it's profitable to mine Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, DASH or Monero. Do you think you've got what it takes to join the tough world of cryptocurrency mining? BTC/AUD CURRENT RATE. 1 BTC - Bitcoin Australian Dollar - AUD. A$ 18,182.59 A bitcoin calculator gives you the price of bitcoin (BTC) in US-dollar or any fiat currency. You can also convert the price from fiat currencies into Bitcoin. The conversion rate displayed is often an average of multiple exchanges. More advanced calculators, such as the bitcoin price converter you can find on this website, take price movements ... Bitcoin to Australian dollar (BTC to AUD) Quickly and easily calculate foreign exchange rates with this free currency converter. From (Please choose) To (Please choose) Rate Date Current Date ...

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Bitcoin-Mine: Hier werden Millionen verdient Galileo ...

Zu Besuch in der Bitcoin-Mine: Hier fließt die virtuelle Währung in Millionenhöhe. Mehr Galileo: http://www.galileo.tv/ Galileo auf YouTube abonnieren: htt... Try watching this video on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser. bitcoin calculator http://www.vnbitcoin.org/bitcoincalculator.php Pls contact [email protected] for excel. Just Remove decimal point and put actual number . ***** 100 Crptocurrency Gambling online https://goo.gl/QepNkV BTC BCH ETH LTC BCN XRP DOGE BCN NEO ... Skip navigation Sign in. Search

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