Okay. So, whether you are new or have been with the bitcoin community for a while, you might not have heard of cryptocurrency staking. Madali lang sya, promise.
I will share my experience at the end of this post, pero ano nga ba ang Staking?
[SKIP THIS PORTION AND GO TO "HOW TO?" IF YOU DON'T WANT TO BE BORED WITH HISTORY]
Compared to bitcoin mining, na sobrang hirap na kasi kailangan mo ng magandang CPU/GPU para lang magka-pera ka. Hindi na sya profittable, kasi malakas sya sa kuryente at bibili ka pa ng mga hardware.
Mas eco-friendly ang Crypto Staking. Para syang investment, actually. Hahawak ka lang ng pera sa wallet mo. Mas malaki ang laman ng wallet mo, mas malaki din kita mo. Simple, right?
Bakit? Let me introduce you to altcoins
. Ang altcoins ay mga cryptocurrency na hindi bitcoin. Example ng mga altcoins ay Ethereum, Litecoin, Dogecoin, and marami pa sila.
May mga altcoins na Proof-of-Work (POW
). Meaning, kailangan mo talaga ng magandang hardware para maka-mine ka ng bagong coins. On the other hand, may mga Proof-of-Stake (POS
) naman na altcoins. Sa mga POS na altcoins, hindi mo kailangan ng napakagandang gaming computer katulad ni Alodia. Ang need mo lang is magkalaman ang wallet mo, at gamit ang balance sa waller, is magva-validate ng mga bagong altcoins. Hindi na ako mag-eexplain pa dahil baka ma bored kayo, so check nyo nalang tong article na to para mas maintindihan nyo: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/proof-stake-pos.asp#:~:text=Proof%20of%20Stake%20(PoS)%20concept,power%20he%20or%20she%20has
--------------------------------------------- How to?
So paano nga tayo kikita ng passive income dito? Para syang interest - gagamitin ang balance nyo para makagawa ng bagong altcoins. In exchange, may makukuha ka rin sa mga bagong na-validate. Para sayng interest sya bankgo, mas malaki hawak mo, mas malaki din kita mong interest.
I won't beat around the bush any longer. Here's how you can start: Ref | Non-Ref
Use either of the link above to register to Coinstake.in. Bale, ibibgay nating ang "staking rights" sa kanila. Sila na ang bahala mag-handle ng mga complicated na bahay. Ang gagawin lang natin, is magkaroon lang kayo ng balance sa wallet, and wait. OPTIONAL
po ang pag deposit ng pera, OPTIONAL
din ang pag-refer.
Makaka income pa rin kayo kahit wala kayong ilabas sa bulsa nyo. But of course, more the merrier, which I will share later.
- Register using the link above. You can use my referral link, or you can just register normally.
- Pag naka-register kana at naka-login na, punta kayo ng faucets. Makakakuha kayo ng libreng altcoins every 60 minutes.
- Wait and relax. Every couple hours, is magkaka "stake" or magkakakita si Coinstake. Then, magdi-distribute lang sila ng kita sa mga may balance sa particulat altcoin na yun sa website.
Madali lang, diba? So ngayon, etong altcoins na nakukuha nyo is pwede nyong i-exchange sa mga trading websites para magka BTC kayo. Then, i-withdraw nyo lang sa Coins.ph
nyo na account.
--------------------------------------------- Personal experience
Hindi ko na-discover to actually. May nag-suggest lang sa akin sa Coinpot
For the first few days, nagtsaga lang ako sa faucets ng Coinstake. Then, I also spent time on other faucet sites and app. Nag-farm ako ng Dogecoins. Nung naka-ipon na, nag-transfer ako sa Bololex.com
. 2 Altcoins ang available sa Bololex - Tokemon (TKM) and Ratcoins (RAT). So, inexchange ko lahat ng Dogecoins ko evenly to Tokemon and Ratcoinsm then inkagay ko sa Coinstake. Siguro nakabili ako ng mga 600,000 na Tokemon, and mga 1,000,000 ng Ratcoin.
Ayun, so naghintay lang ako ng 2 days, habang nagcocollect ako sa faucet. Ang TKM ko ay naging 640,000 and RAT ko naman is naging 1,070,000! Not bad for not doing anything. Sit back and relax ako, and may kita ako. Wow!
So now I invested P400 lang, and just after 4 days I manage to get approximately 0.00121647 BTC (Sa coinstake kasi, on the upper right corner, it shows an estimates value in BTC). In today value, 784.89 pesos po sya.
FYI, nag start pala ako mid-day ng October 12. So medyo bago rin ako, but I can personally attest na maganda tong website na to.
--------------------------------------------- Recommendations on how to cash out
Sobrang laki ng transaction fee pag nag cashout ka using BTC. Kung magca-cashout kayo, here's what I recommend.
- Convert nyo lahat ng Altcoins nyo into other altcoins. I recommend any of the following: Litecoin, Dogecoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum.
- Sa na convert nyo, i-withdraw mo lahat sa Faucetpay.io
- Pagkalagay nyo sa Faucetpay, i-convert nto lahat to just one currency. I recommend namam yung mga sinusupport ni coins ph, which is Litecoin (LTC) or Bitcoin Cash (BCH).
- Pag na-credit na coinsph account mo, convert nyo na sa Pesos and kayo na bahala kung paano mag withdraw. :)
--------------------------------------------- Recommended Altcoins
Here's what I'm staking right now, since this is what I started with. Tokemon (TKM) / Ratcoin (RAT)
Exchange website: https://bololex.com/
I highly recommend Bololex. May games din sila na you can earn what you call BOLO tokens. Pwede mong i-convert yung BOLO sa TKM, which is pang-dagdag din sa balance mo. Minimum bonus TKM you can earn using every few hours is 5000 TKM, which is not bad. Willowcoin (WLLO) / Big Data Cash (BDCASH) / The Big Coin (BIG) / BeanCash (BITB)
Exchange website: https://www.unnamed.exchange/ Infinite Ricks (RICK)
Exchange website: https://www.altilly.com/
Alam kong mahaba, pero salamat sa pagbabasa :)
If you enjoyed staking, you can also consider these 2 websites. Wala nga lang faucets to, so either magdedeposit kayo, or magfafarm kayo ng faucet sa ibang lugar, then transfer nyo dito. Ref | Non-Ref
- Stakecube.net Ref | Non-Ref
- Stackofstake.com (Yung ipon kong extra na Willowcoin sa Stakecoin may nilalagay din ako dito)
[ Removed by reddit in response to a copyright notice. ] submitted by
Internet wagering is at present legitimate in practically all over India. These wagering
destinations offer an assortment of sports to draw in players of India to exploit a few extraordinary offers and great returns. Wagering is progressively respected in India. With an ever increasing number of internet wagering destinations hoping to take advantage of the gainful Indian market, it very well may be trying to pick between them. We should investigate how to locate the best wagering destinations
Betway is one of the most well known destinations. Betway is offering a thorough and monstrous scope of sports and markets. Additionally, their advancements and prizes for existing client continue moving week to week. They don't stop here. Betway incorporates probably the most exciting gambling club games, and they offer top quality rewards and store strategies which suits you.
The guts site is reasonable for live wagering. Guts begin working in 2013, and it was at first planned towards gambling club and gaming. In any case, inside a year they propelled their online sportsbook for clients. Guts sportsbook was fundamentally about football. Yet, presently they are offering a lot of significant games like football, tennis and cricket. You can guarantee their welcome reward by experiencing the prize area, and you can likewise recover your cash a sportsbook reward.
Ladbrokes is one of the notable high road name from British wagering history. They began their tasks in 18 century and their organizer Harry Ogden is perceived at the UK's first expert bookmaker. They began their web based wagering in 2000. You can get extraordinary North America sports inclusion alongside everything from Aussies Rules to Chess, Golf, MMA, Volleyball and pretty much everything in the middle of, just as pony dashing.
Moplay is an online bookmaker which is concentrating on the portable parts of betting
. Moplay started working in 2018. Pre-organize markets were in abundance additionally in examining around at different games like football, tennis and cricket. They do offer moment money out on sure decisions.
Boylesports is one of the solid free bookmaker brand subsidized in 1989 in Ireland. They have a major web business just as web based wagering administration. The edge is to some degree higher on soccer, around 6% yet the rest of the sportsbook is trading with a great deal of lower betting edge, particularly tennis which is essentially roughly 3.1%.
Sportingbet started working in 1998. They have presented their administrations across 26 nations around the world. Sportingbet is clear in working since they are offering straight forward wagering administration for their clients.
It is an online bookmaker that underpins client showcase from India. This bookmaker permits secure route framework for better client experience for its clients. This site is an enrolled one, so it is ok for bettors to play their chances helpfully. They offer an assortment of choices like live wagering, club games betting and chances wagering. In any case, the new clients are given with 100% reward on making their first store.
It is a notable brand far and wide. William slope was established in 1934. They have a fabulous inclusion of live football matches
and different games. Their bet slip is splendid as well, allowing you full usefulness in controlling your wagering alternatives. You can make installment and withdrawal through various techniques.
Betvictor began its capacities during the 1940s. Through quality organizations, they have grown an enormous nearness in the online business. Betvictor isn't constrained to sports wagering, and they are likewise running some non-sports markets. They have entirely broad sportsbook which incorporates rugby, snooker, volleyball, cricket and darts.
22bet was set up in2017. Their sportsbook is an incredible fascination towards clients. Football, cricket, golf and tennis are the principle zones to take a gander at. 22bet is exceptionally liberal when discussing welcome rewards. Their clients must be 18+ to enroll themselves.
Paddy Power is one of the most famous brands which is perceived all around the globe. They began their administrations in 1988 when three Irish bookmakers met up. There is a gigantic mean acknowledge in the Paddy Power sportsbook.
Unibet is one of the well known brands in Europe and India. It was established in 1997. Their sportsbook spread tennis, football, b-ball just as chess, futsal, floor ball, bandy and surfing. They likewise offer a cash back reward for new clients. They offer a gigantic scope of wagering markets.
Unibet is probably the most seasoned game bookmaker around the world, set up in 1997, serving a large number of web based wagering account holders. It is notable all over Europe for its superb games wagering, online gambling club and poker stages.
Betfred is a British bookmaker. They offer their administrations for India also. Betting power licenses them. The Betfred Empire starts working in 1967. They are offering a noteworthy edge on football wagering. You can either utilize their versatile application or site to make the most of their administrations.
It is an European based wagering stage which acknowledges the clients of India also. It is one of the perceived brands in odd markets. They are covering numerous games like rugby, soccer, cricket, tennis, horse dashing golf, boxing cycling and numerous others. You can make the most of their liberal invite offers.
When discussing Indian bookmakers, Coral is among the primary names you can consider. Coral was established during the 1920s, and it is one of the most well known brands when talking about excellent items and offers. They show top European nearby soccer with stunning highlights. Numerous different games have been presented, including football classes.
Illustrious Panda is a worldwide stage which is offering their administrations all around India. They are advancing on the web gambling clubs, not the sportsbook. You can utilize their versatile application and site to make the most of their inventive rewards. It is one of the strictest betting locales. They are offering a wide scope of wagering markets. They are covering circuitous 40 games and a lot of classes.
Smarkets is an online stage which was established by a little gathering of speculator. They are acclaimed for their propelled exchanging stage and 25th quickest developed organization in Europe. Smarkets is exceptionally simple to utilize. They are sans offering wagers for their new clients and welcome rewards. Their essential center is noteworthy games like football tennis, golf, baseball and cricket.
It gives a gigantic portable wagering experience. Leovegas assumes an indispensable job in Indian wagering site. As we enter the landing page of Leovegas India, the primary thing we see slider is a slider in the focal point of the screen, publicizing for the most well known games and advancements here on Leovegas. Leovegas offers a clean and userfriendly stage.
As an ever increasing number of wagering locales are beginning to focus on the imperative Indian market, it is turning into somewhat hard for players to choose which spot is most appropriate for them. One of the most common issues is by all accounts how to get to these sites
Bet365 is celebrated for being one of the greatest and best-wagering locales on the planet. Be that as it may, what makes Bet365 great? That response to this inquiry is that Bet365 has taken the internet wagering industry to an uncommon new level. They give the best betting involvement with all territories. They have the most gigantic assortment of gambling club games and sports wagering. They offer the best portable wagering experience, the best reward on wagering and simply the most amazing live betting experience generally.
Be that as it may, the point which makes Bet365 the world's greatest wagering site is the notoriety for unwavering quality that they have worked for themselves in years. Bet365 is a wagering site you can trust. They generally pay what they owe, and they put incredible significance on their notoriety is the thing that makes Bet365 a genuinely extraordinary bookmaker. 21-Sportsbet.io Sportsbet.io
is a worldwide games wagering organization that was established by individuals with an energy for sports. When you enter the site of Sportsbet.io
, you get the inclination that this whole site is committed to sports wagering. It doesn't have the equivalent lavish impression that you jump on an old wagering site like Unibet or Betway. It's more Spartan and old school.
Then again, this isn't really an awful thing. They don't attempt to push ads or advancements at all of you an opportunity to achieve client's consideration. It's an entirely reliable spot for individuals who simply need to put down wagers and not need to stress over something over the top.
Bodog is an old wagering bookmaker really among the most seasoned on the planet which has as of late opened up and began tolerating Indians players.
They have set up the procedure of the wagering site principally to serve bettors from India, where they endeavor an assortment of live cricket wagering alternatives, give helpful choices of storing cash and permit Indian money.
On the off chance that you appreciate sports wagering and club games or poker sitting, at that point you will in all likelihood appreciate Bodog India.
Bodog begins from Europe, yet it has an Indian site that is customized to suit the flavor of Indian players. Consequently it is of nothing unexpected to discover that the Bodog India Sports wagering is wealthy in cricket wagering.
The sportsbook incorporates all the noteworthy universal cricket competitions and arrangement, just as the well known classes like the Indian Premier League and the huge slam group Australia.
1XBET Bookmaker is a youthful and quickly developing wagering site. Established in 2007, earlier it worked distinctly in the region, with more than 1,000 wagering bookmakers in Russia, and later started the experience in the online market. 1XBET is viewed as the main global bookmaker, in India the genuine speculators know it for quite a while in light of the fact that he underpins Indian rupee (INR) and has a Hindi language Version.
1XBET is mainstream for Indian expert punters, yet before long will be known in each edge of India, for the straightforward reasons that its installments segment is adjustable. So you can pick INDIA (from the rundown of nations) and see the techniques for stores and pulls back are accessible, obviously, don't missing Neteller and skrill all simple and clear.
On the off chance that you are searching for a bookmaker that gives the best chances on the most famous games, the Betwinner might be the wagering site you are searching for.
Wager victor is a moderately new wagering site, however they have just become famous as the spot to be with regards to finding the best chances.
Wager victor is a moderately ongoing theorist that start its tasks in 2016 in the wake of accomplishing an administration permit from (Curaçao eGaming) for working on the web. Betb2b.com
fabricated this site, and it is a similar program that is adding to 1xBET (acclaimed administrator of Russia) since 2007.
Regardless of whether it is their online club activity or their games extend, COMEON India perseveres freely from others, through their broad inclusion and activities. They spread 29 classes of sports and offer a few other elective markets. This sportsbook underpins practically all standard installment designs and gives an incredible reward to new clients.
When you join as a part, you get an invite reward, and you can pick the alternative for the prize that you like. You can store cash once you sign in to your record by essentially tapping on the decision of store. ComeOn India offers the accompanying choices to store your cash
MuchBetter and the sky is the limit from there
This is something we appreciate prescribe when you are simply beginning on another game. Start by playing for no particular reason, and once you've seen that you can bring in cash at this game, at that point toss in some genuine and unique rupees.
Genuine wagering is a zenith with brilliant highlights and extraordinary advancements
At Pinnacle, we know about definitely what Indian players search for in an amazing on the web gambling club. That is the reason we've accumulated a breathtaking mix of the most reliable online gambling club clubs around. Additionally, determinations of incredible table games don't stop there and make your life agreeable and simple we likewise offer a colossal assortment of store strategies for Indians gambling club players.
Our consideration is currently redirected to the focal point of the screen where we see an advancement slider. It is where Unibet features all the present advancements that they are running. They are very brave advancements going on, which we will investigate later. One thing we notice is that all the costs are named in euros.
Beside the live wagering segment, we notice a catch named "supertoto'", and we choose to look at it. It ends up being another uncommon capacity, which is truly remarkable when contrasted with Unibet. Supertoto is a basic method to put down a wager on sports. The objective is to wagered on the result of whatever number matches as could be expected under the circumstances. You can wager on a success, lose or draw.
Matchbook offers a total sportsbook with in excess of 40 distinct games classifications to bet on, including cricket, football, tennis, horse dashing and practically all the famous games, just as e-sports, expert wrestling and different less normal games. You have a decision of live wagering on each live match that is occurring right now, and numerous competitions can even be live-spilled with liberated from cost office. The main standard is that you include put down a wager inside the most recent 24 hours. That gives you full access to the live spilling capacity.
Betfair is one of the world's biggest global online games wagering specialist co-ops. Betfair has more than 2,000 utilizes around the world. Betfair holds betting permit in Malta, Gibraltar Italy, Tasmania and the United States. Betfair is promising in conveying exclusive expectations of respectability and has ensured more than 40 Memoranda of Understanding with the administering groups of sports.
Betfair is the most significant wagering bookmaker on the planet, offering a wide scope of wagering items including exotics wagering markets and extraordinary games, huge poker networks, arcade games and a gambling club.
Something that make Dafabet one of a kind is that they were made to serve the Asian market. All things considered, we can see that they are doing a great deal to interest Asian players, and particularly Indian players. For instance, we realize that they acknowledge Indian cash stores. They additionally offer loads of well known Indian games, for example, cricket, tennis and kabaddi. As an Indian player, it is pleasant to feel like you are esteemed as a client. There is likewise a lot of European games and well known Asian games and gambling club games accessible.
It is an energizing and one of a kind internet betting webpage having a place with the European island naming Malta. The site is special it might be said that it depends on a superhuman topic which is an uncommon thing we have seen on some other wagering site previously. This current bookmaker's appeal is a hero naming Captain Rizk, and his topic can be discovered everywhere throughout the site.
Meridian Bet is a main worldwide supplier of on the web and land-based games wagering arrangements with 700+ wagering shops in 35 nations around four landmasses? Their most noteworthy accomplishment is the steady income development pace of 20% over the most recent three years. They likewise offer an every minute of every day client assistance by means of live talk, telephone, email or informal community.
Inside an incredibly solemn methodology towards security and visitor administration, SBOBET is a main web based gaming brand. They have won the Asian Operator of the year grant for 2009-10. SBOBET offers you a quick and secure player condition with prompt winning outcomes, fast installments and simple access to nonstop web based wagering.
This webpage is among the world's biggest online poker rooms and sports wagering destinations offering phenomenal chances to its players. Its immense number of enlisted genuine cash players has surpassed 3,000,000. This site gives dependable gaming instruments to make poker protected and a good time for the players.
This site is known to be the highest quality level in internet gaming. It offers on the web and via telephone wagers for open parlays. Owning the business for over 15 years adds to unwavering quality. This site gives the player's cashback rewards, diminished juice wagers, free play remunerates and significantly more.
Situated in Georgia, this organization is the main site in the nation. Players can play gambling club games on the web or entertain themselves with sports wagering at this bookmaker website.
Planetwin365 is Europe's quickest developing wagering and gaming administrators. This site is working with a large number of subsidiary accomplices over the world. More than one million wagers are handled day by day, and it additionally supplies in excess of 1300 retail outlets. The brand planetwin 365 is claimed by the SKS365 gathering of organizations which holds online licenses alongside land-based licenses from seven nations in Europe.
Red game is a worldwide games betting organization. It started to include in sports sponsorship in 2010. This organization is among the first non-US online games wagering organizations working in the United States. It is additionally an individual from ESSA, which is the European wagering uprightness body.
Cloud wager directs the wagering business through a chain of authorized shops that are situated in Ireland and the UK. It offers online games wagering, online club and poker, online bingo and numerous other web based games.
Once in the past known as Party Bets, is presently possessed by one of the biggest poker locales on the net, Party Poker. Authorized from both Gibraltar and UK, the site offers a wide scope of sports and great client care. To stall out in, the site gives a broad scope of games. Customers are very much provided food for, and every single significant game occasions are secured. Football is the most mainstream and secured sport by a wide margin, as the site is an European confronting bookmaker.
Sportspesa, a games news innovation, was established in 2014, offering web based games and lotteries. It is a games news innovation with around 500 workers and has put resources into the advancement of the nearby games groups and competitions in Tanzania and Kenya. It works in relationship with TGP in the UK.
Claimed by Logflex MT constrained, NOVIBET.com
is a completely enlisted web based betting site. Playing with Novibet isn't simply fun however is sheltered and secure on the grounds that it holds licenses from MGA, which make the site obliged to keep all customers assets in trust accounts. The site offers a dependable gaming strategy and is focused on limiting the unfavorable impacts of issue betting and is resolved to advance positive betting practices.
Offering different sorts of bettings on numerous games from over the world, BETPAWA is the most present day and quick wagering site in Zambia. This site is a creative bookmaker that offers the most reduced value wagers. It leads a wide assortment of pre-coordinate and in-play wagers on football alongside different games like b-ball, tennis and so on. You can choose from an immense scope of wagers on the site and can likewise decide on live wagering.
As a piece of Fold gadgets gaming and distributing, MISLI was established in 2009. This site is situated in Istanbul. MISLI is a participation based site which offers online games wagering and lotteries. This site offers wagers on an assortment of games, particularly supporting soccer. It likewise gives the clients to play the national lottery. This site as of now utilizes 36 innovations. MISLI.com
has been positioned 12,027 among the worldwide sites dependent on the huge number of its month to month guests surpassing 4,115,485.
Sky wagering and gaming, a British based Canadian organization, has offered a wagering division as Sky Bet. It possesses 1,628 representatives and is evaluated sixth among the ten highest contenders. This organization is the world's driving internet gaming and wagering organization which has the most noteworthy number of clients than any other person. Lion's share of the tasks of Sky Bet are led from Leeds. They offer to wager through their site, phone or portable applications and so forth. AGCC licenses the organization. Sky Bet likewise had a TV channel on Sky Channel 864 which quit working on February 2012.
With regards to online club and wagering, and Bet Safe is a rumored name. This website is a bookmaker and online gambling club which was established in 2006 and is possessed by a notable Swedish organization. 400 fifty thousand clients profit the ideas from 100 distinct nations around the globe. The dependability and unwavering quality of the site are apparent by the tremendous number of clients it possesses. Wager Safe is an easy to understand site offering an enormous assortment of games and items. It gives an astounding client assistance program and its simple to store and pull back cash. This site gives its clients the best web based gaming experience.
This site offer betting stage for Bitcoin and digital money was established in 2016. Wagers are offered day by day more than 1000 games. Live online club games and in excess of 3000 openings are likewise accessible. A selective element is that it gives its games too. All client accounts bolster numerous monetary forms, and it empowers the players to wager utilizing in excess of ten cryptographic forms of money. Clients are additionally offered an assortment of rewards. A 100% first store reward is the most extreme preferred position. A bug assists with multiplying and right away pull back the main store reserves. Client's perspectives recommend that their client care is dependable and accommodating. It is being seen as the best reserving site for crypto. It offers high chances to the players when contrasted with comparable sportsbooks.
Since 2000, Mozzart has been a specific piece of the gaming business. This organization offers around 10,000 chances day by day for around 500 games. As of late, Mozzart has led its ground activity with more than 900 retailer shops and has seen a high development rate in its online administrations. One ought to be over 18 to wager on the site Mozzartbet.com
. BCLB has given the permit to the site. Live wagering on games is offered including football, ball, tennis and other critical occasions. You can observe live spilling of your preferred round and put down online wagers.
Ireland biggest and free bookmaker is known as BoyleSports. They contribute in the online space by adding the top of the line applications to the google play store which offer web based wagering, club, gaming, wagering and lottery administrations. By 2004, they had 77 shops, and in 2006 they opened their 100th store.
In 2019, BetChris declared to enter the United Kingdom retail advertise with the popular bookmaker Gilbert. The organization's activity was extended in Northern Ireland which made the nation Ireland's biggest retail bookmaker.
Finnish submitted by
(suomi, or suomen kieli [ˈsuomen ˈkieli]) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. It is one of the two official languages of Finland and an official minority language in Sweden. In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli
, a Finnish dialect, are spoken. The Kven language
, a dialect of Finnish, is spoken in Northern Norway by a minority group of Finnish descent.
Finnish's full classification (using an agnostic approach that assumes all branches are distinct, since Finno-Urgic
having been challenged and abandoned by Ethnologue) is as follows: Uralic
) > Finnic
) > Finnish Phonology and Phonotactics
Standard Finnish has 8 vowels and 18 diphthongs. Vowels are contrasted based on length, with both long and short vowels existing. These contrasts occur in both stressed and unstressed syllables, though long vowels tend to be more common in short syllables. There is almost no allophony between among the Finnish vowels.
Finnish has 13 consonant sounds, and, like the vowels, these too can be short or long (gemination
), with these being phonemic. Independent consonant clusters are not allowed in native words, except for a small set of two-consonant syllable codas, e.g. 'rs' in karsta. However, because of a number of recently adopted loanwords using them, e.g. strutsi from Swedish struts, meaning "ostrich", Finnish speakers can pronounce them, even if it is somewhat awkward.
The main stress is always on the first syllable. Stress does not cause any measurable modifications in vowel quality (very much unlike English). However, stress is not strong and words appear evenly stressed. In some cases, stress is so weak that the highest points of volume, pitch and other indicators of "articulation intensity" are not on the first syllable, although native speakers recognize the first syllable as a stressed syllable.
Finnish has several morphophonological processes that require modification of the forms of words for daily speech. The most important processes are vowel harmony and consonant gradation.
Vowel harmony is a redundancy feature, which means that the feature [±back] is uniform within a word, and so it is necessary to interpret it only once for a given word. It is meaning-distinguishing in the initial syllable, and suffixes follow; so, if the listener hears [±back] in any part of the word, they can derive [±back] for the initial syllable. For example, from the stem tuote ("product") one derives tuotteeseensa ("into his product"), where the final vowel becomes the back vowel 'a' (rather than the front vowel 'ä') because the initial syllable contains the back vowels 'uo'. This is especially notable because vowels 'a' and 'ä' are different, meaning-distinguishing phonemes, not interchangeable or allophonic. Finnish front vowels are not umlauts.
Consonant gradation is a partly nonproductive lenition process for P, T and K in inherited vocabulary, with the oblique stem "weakened" from the nominative stem, or vice versa. For example, tarkka "precise" has the oblique stem tarka-, as in tarkan "of the precise". There is also another gradation pattern, which is older, and causes simple elision of T and K in suffixes. However, it is very common since it is found in the partitive case marker: if V is a single vowel, V+ta → Va, e.g. *tarkka+ta → tarkkaa.
Finnish syllable structure can be classified as (C)V(S)(C) where (S) stands for 'segment', either a consonant or a phoneme. There are some rare syllables that break these general rules, but the basic syllable type given above constitute well over 90% of the words. Grammar
Finnish is an agglutinative language. Finnish word order is fairly free, though a general tendency towards subject-verb-object does exist. However, this is often overridden by the fact that the topic of the conversation comes first (if talking about a man that was bitten by a dog, the word for man would come first).
Neither Finnish nouns nor pronouns decline for gender. There is also no article in the language. However, Finnish does distinguish 15 (16 in some dialects) noun cases
. There are four grammatical cases (nominative, genitive, accusative and partitive), six locative cases (inessive, elative, illative, adessive, ablative, allative), two (three in some dialects) essive cases (essive and translative) and three 'marginal cases' (instructive, abessive and comitative).
Finnish has 7 pronouns, distinguishing three persons and two numbers (singular and plural), but no gender distinction in the third person. The seventh pronoun is a formal 2nd person. While the first and second person pronouns are generally dropped in Standard Finnish, they are common in colloquial speech; third person is required in both standard and colloquial Finnish. The third person pronouns, hän
are often replaced with se
(singular and plural, respectively) in colloquial speech.
Finnish adjectives share the inflection paradigms of Finnish nouns and must agree with the noun in both number and case. Adverbs are generally formed by adding the suffix -sti
to the inflecting form of the corresponding adjectives. Outside of this derivational process, they are not inflected.
Being a case rich language, Finnish has few post- or prepositions. However, what few it has tend to be postpositions. When the postposition governs a noun, the noun takes the genitive case. Likewise, a postposition can take a possessive suffix to express persons. Prepositions tend to take nouns in the partitive case.
Finnish has six conjugation classes; even though each class takes the same personal endings, the stems take different suffixes and change slightly when the verb is conjugated. Finnish has very few irregular verbs, and even some of those are irregular only in certain persons, moods, tenses, etc.
Finnish verbs can conjugate for four tenses: non-past, historically called the present, which can express the present or the future; preterite, historically called the imperfect, which covers English past simple and past continuous; perfect, which corresponds to the English present perfect; plusperfect, which corresponds to the English past perfect.
Finnish verbs can also conjugate for two voices, the active and the passive. The Finnish passive is unipersonal, that is, it only appears in one form regardless of who is understood to be performing the action. In that respect, it could be described as a "fourth person", since there is no (standard) way of connecting the action performed with a particular agent.
Finnish verbs conjugate for five different moods. These are the indicative, the conditional, the imperative (split into several types), the optative and the potential. A sixth mood, the eventitive, is no longer used in Finnish, but is the mood used in the Finnish epic poem Kalevala
Finnish infinitives can come in four, sometimes analyzed as five, different groups. The first one is the citation form of the infinitive and corresponds to the English 'to X' infinitive use. The second infinitive is used to express aspects of actions relating to the time when an action takes place or the manner in which an action happens. In equivalent English phrases these time aspects can often be expressed using 'when', 'while' or 'whilst' and the manner aspects using the word 'by' or else the gerund, which is formed by adding "ing" to English verb to express manner. The third infinitive corresponds to the English gerund while the fourth and the fifth, both of which are rare in Finnish today, mark obligation and 'just about to...' respectively. Miscellany
- Finnish, with 15/16 cases, has more cases than its ancestor Proto-Uralic, which is typically reconstructed with six; so, unlike most Indo-European languages, Finnish gained cases over time.
- The exessive case is the essive case found only in some dialects
- Finnish has borrowed extensively, with some linguists positing that only 300 Proto-Uralic words can be found in Finnish; however, due to the radical differences between Finnish and its Indo-European neighbors, borrowings quickly get nativized.
- Some Finnish loan words do not seem to have come from Indo-European languages or have cognates in other Uralic languages. It is possible that these are borrowings from whatever languages were spoken in Europe before the spread of Indo-European languages.
- Finnish orthography is highly phonemic, and, barring distinctions between colloquial and standard forms, one can often "write as you read, read as you write".
- The language's orthography is often easily-recognizable because of its lack of b, c, f, q, w, x, z and å.
Samples Spoken sample
(folk song) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SCEw4uH2a8I&list=PLL92dfFL9ZdJBbTpg-h9AMnZfxNlHwrbh
(Playlist of songs popular in Finland currently) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7vYH1JH73pw
(Finnish newscast on Bitcoin) Written sample
Vaka vanha Väinämöinen itse tuon sanoiksi virkki: "Näistäpä toki tulisi kalanluinen kanteloinen, kun oisi osoajata, soiton luisen laatijata." Kun ei toista tullutkana, ei ollut osoajata, soiton luisen laatijata, vaka vanha Väinämöinen itse loihe laatijaksi, tekijäksi teentelihe.
(Verses 221-232 of song 40 of the Kalevala) Audio here
Kaikki ihmiset syntyvät vapaina ja tasavertaisina arvoltaan ja oikeuksiltaan. Heille on annettu järki ja omatunto, ja heidän on toimittava toisiaan kohtaan veljeyden hengessä.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
- Wikipedia page on Finnish, and related links
- Finnish Sound Structure: Phonetics, phonology, phonotactics and prosody (Suomi, Toivan and Ylitalo 2008)
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