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Bitcoin Newcomers FAQ - Please read!

Welcome to the /Bitcoin Sticky FAQ

You've probably been hearing a lot about Bitcoin recently and are wondering what's the big deal? Most of your questions should be answered by the resources below but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments.
It all started with the release of the release of Satoshi Nakamoto's whitepaper however that will probably go over the head of most readers so we recommend the following videos for a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little about its long term potential:
Some other great resources include Lopp.net, the Princeton crypto series and James D'Angelo's Bitcoin 101 Blackboard series.
Some excellent writing on Bitcoin's value proposition and future can be found at the Satoshi Nakamoto Institute.
Some Bitcoin statistics can be found here and here. Developer resources can be found here. Peer-reviewed research papers can be found here.
Potential upcoming protocol improvements and scaling resources here and here.
The number of times Bitcoin was declared dead by the media can be found here (LOL!)

Key properties of Bitcoin

Where can I buy bitcoins?

Bitcoin.org and BuyBitcoinWorldwide.com are helpful sites for beginners. You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin (even just a few dollars worth) and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank transfer. Some of the more popular resources are below, also check out the bitcoinity exchange resources for a larger list of options for purchases.
Here is a listing of local ATMs. If you would like your paycheck automatically converted to bitcoin use Bitwage.
Note: Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Preev is a useful site that that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".

Securing your bitcoins

With bitcoin you can "Be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoins OR you can use third party companies aka "Bitcoin banks" which will hold the bitcoins for you.
Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email!
2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below. Make sure you create backups of your 2FA codes.
Google Auth Authy OTP Auth
Android Android N/A
iOS iOS iOS

Watch out for scams

As mentioned above, Bitcoin is decentralized, which by definition means there is no official website or Twitter handle or spokesperson or CEO. However, all money attracts thieves. This combination unfortunately results in scammers running official sounding names or pretending to be an authority on YouTube or social media. Many scammers throughout the years have claimed to be the inventor of Bitcoin. Websites like bitcoin(dot)com and the btc subreddit are active scams. Almost all altcoins (shitcoins) are marketed heavily with big promises but are really just designed to separate you from your bitcoin. So be careful: any resource, including all linked in this document, may in the future turn evil. Don't trust, verify. Also as they say in our community "Not your keys, not your coins".

Where can I spend bitcoins?

Check out spendabit or bitcoin directory for millions of merchant options. Also you can spend bitcoin anywhere visa is accepted with bitcoin debit cards such as the CashApp card. Some other useful site are listed below.
Store Product
Gyft Gift cards for hundreds of retailers including Amazon, Target, Walmart, Starbucks, Whole Foods, CVS, Lowes, Home Depot, iTunes, Best Buy, Sears, Kohls, eBay, GameStop, etc.
Spendabit, Overstock and The Bitcoin Directory Retail shopping with millions of results
ShakePay Generate one time use Visa cards in seconds
NewEgg and Dell For all your electronics needs
Bitwa.la, Coinbills, Piixpay, Bitbill.eu, Bylls, Coins.ph, Bitrefill, LivingRoomofSatoshi, Coinsfer, and more Bill payment
Menufy, Takeaway and Thuisbezorgd NL Takeout delivered to your door
Expedia, Cheapair, Destinia, Abitsky, SkyTours, the Travel category on Gyft and 9flats For when you need to get away
Cryptostorm, Mullvad, and PIA VPN services
Namecheap, Porkbun Domain name registration
Stampnik Discounted USPS Priority, Express, First-Class mail postage
Coinmap and AirBitz are helpful to find local businesses accepting bitcoins. A good resource for UK residents is at wheretospendbitcoins.co.uk.
There are also lots of charities which accept bitcoin donations.

Merchant Resources

There are several benefits to accepting bitcoin as a payment option if you are a merchant;
If you are interested in accepting bitcoin as a payment method, there are several options available;

Can I mine bitcoin?

Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out.
If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. If you would prefer to keep it simple there are several good options. You can view the global node distribution here.

Earning bitcoins

Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoins by being paid to do a job.
Site Description
WorkingForBitcoins, Bitwage, Cryptogrind, Coinality, Bitgigs, /Jobs4Bitcoins, BitforTip, Rein Project Freelancing
Lolli Earn bitcoin when you shop online!
OpenBazaar, Purse.io, Bitify, /Bitmarket, 21 Market Marketplaces
/GirlsGoneBitcoin NSFW Adult services
A-ads, Coinzilla.io Advertising
You can also earn bitcoins by participating as a market maker on JoinMarket by allowing users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoins for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoins.

Bitcoin-Related Projects

The following is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
Project Description
Lightning Network Second layer scaling
Blockstream, Rootstock and Drivechain Sidechains
Hivemind and Augur Prediction markets
Tierion and Factom Records & Titles on the blockchain
BitMarkets, DropZone, Beaver and Open Bazaar Decentralized markets
JoinMarket and Wasabi Wallet CoinJoin implementation
Coinffeine and Bisq Decentralized bitcoin exchanges
Keybase Identity & Reputation management
Abra Global P2P money transmitter network
Bitcore Open source Bitcoin javascript library

Bitcoin Units

One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
Unit Symbol Value Info
bitcoin BTC 1 bitcoin one bitcoin is equal to 100 million satoshis
millibitcoin mBTC 1,000 per bitcoin used as default unit in recent Electrum wallet releases
bit bit 1,000,000 per bitcoin colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin (μBTC)
satoshi sat 100,000,000 per bitcoin smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $10000 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki.
Still have questions? Feel free to ask in the comments below or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit.
Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval.
Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
submitted by BitcoinFan7 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Gridcoin 5.0.0.0-Mandatory "Fern" Release

https://github.com/gridcoin-community/Gridcoin-Research/releases/tag/5.0.0.0
Finally! After over ten months of development and testing, "Fern" has arrived! This is a whopper. 240 pull requests merged. Essentially a complete rewrite that was started with the scraper (the "neural net" rewrite) in "Denise" has now been completed. Practically the ENTIRE Gridcoin specific codebase resting on top of the vanilla Bitcoin/Peercoin/Blackcoin vanilla PoS code has been rewritten. This removes the team requirement at last (see below), although there are many other important improvements besides that.
Fern was a monumental undertaking. We had to encode all of the old rules active for the v10 block protocol in new code and ensure that the new code was 100% compatible. This had to be done in such a way as to clear out all of the old spaghetti and ring-fence it with tightly controlled class implementations. We then wrote an entirely new, simplified ruleset for research rewards and reengineered contracts (which includes beacon management, polls, and voting) using properly classed code. The fundamentals of Gridcoin with this release are now on a very sound and maintainable footing, and the developers believe the codebase as updated here will serve as the fundamental basis for Gridcoin's future roadmap.
We have been testing this for MONTHS on testnet in various stages. The v10 (legacy) compatibility code has been running on testnet continuously as it was developed to ensure compatibility with existing nodes. During the last few months, we have done two private testnet forks and then the full public testnet testing for v11 code (the new protocol which is what Fern implements). The developers have also been running non-staking "sentinel" nodes on mainnet with this code to verify that the consensus rules are problem-free for the legacy compatibility code on the broader mainnet. We believe this amount of testing is going to result in a smooth rollout.
Given the amount of changes in Fern, I am presenting TWO changelogs below. One is high level, which summarizes the most significant changes in the protocol. The second changelog is the detailed one in the usual format, and gives you an inkling of the size of this release.

Highlights

Protocol

Note that the protocol changes will not become active until we cross the hard-fork transition height to v11, which has been set at 2053000. Given current average block spacing, this should happen around October 4, about one month from now.
Note that to get all of the beacons in the network on the new protocol, we are requiring ALL beacons to be validated. A two week (14 day) grace period is provided by the code, starting at the time of the transition height, for people currently holding a beacon to validate the beacon and prevent it from expiring. That means that EVERY CRUNCHER must advertise and validate their beacon AFTER the v11 transition (around Oct 4th) and BEFORE October 18th (or more precisely, 14 days from the actual date of the v11 transition). If you do not advertise and validate your beacon by this time, your beacon will expire and you will stop earning research rewards until you advertise and validate a new beacon. This process has been made much easier by a brand new beacon "wizard" that helps manage beacon advertisements and renewals. Once a beacon has been validated and is a v11 protocol beacon, the normal 180 day expiration rules apply. Note, however, that the 180 day expiration on research rewards has been removed with the Fern update. This means that while your beacon might expire after 180 days, your earned research rewards will be retained and can be claimed by advertising a beacon with the same CPID and going through the validation process again. In other words, you do not lose any earned research rewards if you do not stake a block within 180 days and keep your beacon up-to-date.
The transition height is also when the team requirement will be relaxed for the network.

GUI

Besides the beacon wizard, there are a number of improvements to the GUI, including new UI transaction types (and icons) for staking the superblock, sidestake sends, beacon advertisement, voting, poll creation, and transactions with a message. The main screen has been revamped with a better summary section, and better status icons. Several changes under the hood have improved GUI performance. And finally, the diagnostics have been revamped.

Blockchain

The wallet sync speed has been DRASTICALLY improved. A decent machine with a good network connection should be able to sync the entire mainnet blockchain in less than 4 hours. A fast machine with a really fast network connection and a good SSD can do it in about 2.5 hours. One of our goals was to reduce or eliminate the reliance on snapshots for mainnet, and I think we have accomplished that goal with the new sync speed. We have also streamlined the in-memory structures for the blockchain which shaves some memory use.
There are so many goodies here it is hard to summarize them all.
I would like to thank all of the contributors to this release, but especially thank @cyrossignol, whose incredible contributions formed the backbone of this release. I would also like to pay special thanks to @barton2526, @caraka, and @Quezacoatl1, who tirelessly helped during the testing and polishing phase on testnet with testing and repeated builds for all architectures.
The developers are proud to present this release to the community and we believe this represents the starting point for a true renaissance for Gridcoin!

Summary Changelog

Accrual

Changed

Most significantly, nodes calculate research rewards directly from the magnitudes in EACH superblock between stakes instead of using a two- or three- point average based on a CPID's current magnitude and the magnitude for the CPID when it last staked. For those long-timers in the community, this has been referred to as "Superblock Windows," and was first done in proof-of-concept form by @denravonska.

Removed

Beacons

Added

Changed

Removed

Unaltered

As a reminder:

Superblocks

Added

Changed

Removed

Voting

Added

Changed

Removed

Detailed Changelog

[5.0.0.0] 2020-09-03, mandatory, "Fern"

Added

Changed

Removed

Fixed

submitted by jamescowens to gridcoin [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

On F-Droid apps and bitcoin donations

The recent post on FOSS android apps and how they can earn money made me curious about their bitcoin donations, so I slapped together a quick script, grabbed the donation addresses from the F-Droid metadata and queried their total received amount.
The result, sorted by total received and valued using some value of today (9366.36 EUR per BTC)

Package address total EUR
net.i2p.android.router 1BPdWwovytfGdBwUDVgqbMZ8omcPQzshpX 100.35295704 939941.92
net.i2p.android 1BPdWwovytfGdBwUDVgqbMZ8omcPQzshpX 100.35295704 939941.92
com.piratebayfree 1KeBs4HBQzkdHC2ou3gpyGHqcL7aKzwTve 76.80127006 719348.34
org.asnelt.derandom 1NZz4TGpJ1VL4Qmqw7aRAurASAT3Cq5S6s 60.84434648 569890.05
com.nononsenseapps.notepad 16DUL1X4yARfM88GN7TV6Y3wQwqrstJs7A 58.40632213 547054.64
ch.blinkenlights.android.vanilla 1adrianERDJusC4c8whyT81zAuiENEqub 52.62216723 492878.16
org.fdroid.fdroid.privileged.ota 15u8aAPK4jJ5N8wpWJ5gutAyyeHtKX5i18 52.00899644 487134.98
org.fdroid.fdroid.privileged 15u8aAPK4jJ5N8wpWJ5gutAyyeHtKX5i18 52.00899644 487134.98
org.fdroid.fdroid.ota 15u8aAPK4jJ5N8wpWJ5gutAyyeHtKX5i18 52.00899644 487134.98
org.fdroid.fdroid 15u8aAPK4jJ5N8wpWJ5gutAyyeHtKX5i18 52.00899644 487134.98
org.fdroid.basic 15u8aAPK4jJ5N8wpWJ5gutAyyeHtKX5i18 52.00899644 487134.98
de.k3b.android.lossless_jpg_crop 15u8aAPK4jJ5N8wpWJ5gutAyyeHtKX5i18 52.00899644 487134.98
org.calyxinstitute.vpn 14wntQ8cBdnhUVfYmDjXz6PbpSSX8nCtkr 17.65221369 165336.99
de.tutao.tutanota 3MDrR5gaMvL8sphuQLX6BvPPKYNArdXsv6 10.30485934 96519.02
net.osmand.plus 1GRgEnKujorJJ9VBa76g8cp3sfoWtQqSs4 8.49212217 79540.27
me.tripsit.tripmobile 1EDqf32gw73tc1WtgdT2FymfmDN4RyC9RN 7.00970601 65655.43
player.efis.pfd 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
player.efis.mfd 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
player.efis.data.zar.aus 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
player.efis.data.usa.can 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
player.efis.data.sah.jap 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
player.efis.data.pan.arg 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
player.efis.data.eur.rus 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
player.efis.cfd 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
com.nutomic.zertman 1NUqm2kyaiRdssFaxYd7CQaWy4og19xH5g 5.0 46831.80
com.nutomic.ensichat 1DmU6QVGSKXGXJU1bqmmStPDNsNnYoMJB4 4.99995 46831.33
com.brentpanther.litecoinwidget 15SHnY7HC5bTxzErHDPe7wHXj1HhtDKV7z 4.29288259 40208.68
com.brentpanther.ethereumwidget 15SHnY7HC5bTxzErHDPe7wHXj1HhtDKV7z 4.29288259 40208.68
com.brentpanther.bitcoinwidget 15SHnY7HC5bTxzErHDPe7wHXj1HhtDKV7z 4.29288259 40208.68
com.brentpanther.bitcoincashwidget 15SHnY7HC5bTxzErHDPe7wHXj1HhtDKV7z 4.29288259 40208.68
im.vector.alpha 1LxowEgsquZ3UPZ68wHf8v2MDZw82dVmAE 3.65680571 34250.96
in.p1x.tanks_of_freedom 18oHovhxpevALZFcjH3mgNKB1yLi3nNFRY 3.59251169 33648.76
com.veken0m.bitcoinium 1yjDmiukhB2i1XyVw5t7hpAK4WXo32d54 3.49440553 32729.86
com.vuze.android.remote 15j7vKgJbixQFZ6AvEFw2BhtA4KG7E14JZ 2.52566983 23656.33
at.bitfire.nophonespam 1KSCy7RHztKuhW9fLLaUYqdwdC2iwbejZU 2.40361077 22513.08
at.bitfire.icsdroid 1KSCy7RHztKuhW9fLLaUYqdwdC2iwbejZU 2.40361077 22513.08
at.bitfire.gfxtablet 1KSCy7RHztKuhW9fLLaUYqdwdC2iwbejZU 2.40361077 22513.08
at.bitfire.davdroid 1KSCy7RHztKuhW9fLLaUYqdwdC2iwbejZU 2.40361077 22513.08
at.bitfire.cadroid 1KSCy7RHztKuhW9fLLaUYqdwdC2iwbejZU 2.40361077 22513.08
com.wireguard.android 1ASnTs4UjXKR8tHnLi9yG42n42hbFYV2um 2.36196229 22122.99
net.sourceforge.wifiremoteplay 1LKCFto9SQGqtcvqZxHkqDPqNjSnfMmsow 2.20225896 20627.15
net.sourceforge.opencamera 1LKCFto9SQGqtcvqZxHkqDPqNjSnfMmsow 2.20225896 20627.15
org.witness.sscphase1 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
org.torproject.android 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
org.havenapp.main 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.ripple 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.pixelknot 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.otr.app.im 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.orfox 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.notepadbot 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.locationprivacy 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.lildebi 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.gilga 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.courier 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.checkey 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.cacert 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.browser 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
at.or.at.plugoffairplane 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
sk.baka.aedict 1KJyEutxrm3yL7chvsciMJTvXahXoWE3Pw 2.0 18732.72
byrne.utilities.pasteedroid 1L44pgmZpeMsWsd24WgN6SJjEUARG5eY6G 1.93771879 18149.37
byrne.utilities.hashpass 1L44pgmZpeMsWsd24WgN6SJjEUARG5eY6G 1.93771879 18149.37
byrne.utilities.converter 1L44pgmZpeMsWsd24WgN6SJjEUARG5eY6G 1.93771879 18149.37
com.zoffcc.applications.zanavi 1ZANav18WY8ytM7bhnAEBS3bdrTohsD9p 1.3792561 12918.61
eu.domob.shopt 1domobKsPZ5cWk2kXssD8p8ES1qffGUCm 1.30931 12263.47
eu.domob.bjtrainer 1domobKsPZ5cWk2kXssD8p8ES1qffGUCm 1.30931 12263.47
eu.domob.angulo 1domobKsPZ5cWk2kXssD8p8ES1qffGUCm 1.30931 12263.47
eu.domob.anacam 1domobKsPZ5cWk2kXssD8p8ES1qffGUCm 1.30931 12263.47
libretasks.app 193Xb3sySr2oEMuJC6bqAov444rSyVczW 1.24689782 11678.89
com.ymber.eleven 12aDckQC6YHEn75zReQWxXFCivBBNXfRjM 1.19375821 11181.17
si.modrajagoda.didi 1FU27EyocpFFhexjoakSe7Hxvf4jD2KmFh 1.05 9834.68
com.nononsenseapps.feeder 1PdmeeGxB2iktvmtkGqwUNmYq7L9tnxjwE 1.02972708 9644.79
org.projectmaxs.transport.xmpp bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.wifichange bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.wifiaccess bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.smswrite bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.smssend bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.smsread bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.smsnotify bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.shell bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.ringermode bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.phonestateread bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.notification bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.nfc bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.misc bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.locationfine bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.filewrite bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.fileread bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.contactsread bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.clipboard bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.bluetoothadmin bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.bluetooth bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.alarmset bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.main bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
com.eibriel.reddot 1MD8wCtnx5zqGvkY1VYPNqckAyTWDhXKzY 0.923361 8648.53
org.briarproject.briar.android 1NZCKkUCtJV2U2Y9hDb9uq8S7ksFCFGR6K 0.59356774 5559.57
eu.faircode.email 13nUbfsLUzK9Sr7ZJgDRHNR91BJMuDuJnf 0.51806696 4852.40
de.robv.android.xposed.installer 1uAEzZrfJt96UHYQheUUC8gSp2TJdwdw3 0.49531493 4639.30
org.kontalk 14vipppSvCG7VdvoYmbhKZ8DbTfv9U1QfS 0.48859802 4576.38
hashengineering.groestlcoin.wallet_test 3BCeMXVny1HbDc4NK64UZs9oFjKZdajBfx 0.48 4495.85
hashengineering.groestlcoin.wallet 3BCeMXVny1HbDc4NK64UZs9oFjKZdajBfx 0.48 4495.85
org.disrupted.rumble 1PXXMinxQgYUPXzZq6BixZpJTFeiCLqDqD 0.44804797 4196.58
se.manyver 3NNGfHL96UrjggaBVQojF1mnGnXNx1SXv7 0.44135235 4133.86
org.schabi.sharewithnewpipe 16A9J59ahMRqkLSZjhYj33n9j3fMztFxnh 0.40426632 3786.50
org.schabi.openhitboxstreams 16A9J59ahMRqkLSZjhYj33n9j3fMztFxnh 0.40426632 3786.50
org.schabi.newpipelegacy 16A9J59ahMRqkLSZjhYj33n9j3fMztFxnh 0.40426632 3786.50
org.schabi.newpipe 16A9J59ahMRqkLSZjhYj33n9j3fMztFxnh 0.40426632 3786.50
org.mariotaku.twidere 1FHAVAzge7cj1LfCTMfnLL49DgA3mVUCuW 0.33555159 3142.90
de.gabbo.forro_lyrics 1MDjHkXQud77UJk6TqmGkjeyhmz67NfE6g 0.32967373 3087.84
org.disroot.disrootapp 1GNmDSXxpU1zaxEopKCJK2TzLh3dbZAxEA 0.32853919 3077.22
com.dfa.hubzilla_android 1GNmDSXxpU1zaxEopKCJK2TzLh3dbZAxEA 0.32853919 3077.22
com.watabou.pixeldungeon 1LyLJAzxCfieivap1yK3iCpGoUmzAnjdyK 0.30544626 2860.92
ca.pr0ps.xposed.entrustunblocker 15jv7w1AdCMkNpDaAQrPtwK3Lfxx5ggAKX 0.2981067 2792.17
ca.cmetcalfe.xposed.flatconnectivityicons 15jv7w1AdCMkNpDaAQrPtwK3Lfxx5ggAKX 0.2981067 2792.17
ca.cmetcalfe.xposed.disablebatterywarnings 15jv7w1AdCMkNpDaAQrPtwK3Lfxx5ggAKX 0.2981067 2792.17
ca.cmetcalfe.locationshare 15jv7w1AdCMkNpDaAQrPtwK3Lfxx5ggAKX 0.2981067 2792.17
eu.faircode.netguard 13vtPytVVqCwojmohAqsK61Tk4yGXSWpJK 0.28845628 2701.79
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org.chickenhook.startflagexploit bc1qvll2mp5ndwd4sgycu4ad2ken4clhjac7mdlcaj 0.0 0.00
org.androidpn.client 13MjTPDFQtxv1u1sWURkDduFSw97KbMfsS 0.0 0.00
org.amoradi.syncopoli 1DT8ijBkGUAvW9VZqfCQBJFS62vvw5E7QK 0.0 0.00
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io.github.tjg1.nori 1NHUsSzj3N7TE8rykUYk8rqqLWWSmTVzdp 0.0 0.00
in.shick.lockpatterngenerator 1JscvZEbchRUpCXYX13bJb3aF6U1yT9BwG 0.0 0.00
ga.testapp.testapp 3NUiJXDCkyRTb9Tg7n63yK6Y7CexADtSEh 0.0 0.00
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fr.cph.chicago.foss 13WUmCX1AePEKFGv5U1qRgBockFahsm21o 0.0 0.00
fr.corenting.traficparis 3JmaEkuviReVdCG8fjqCs5LwQkaEGcTMtZ 0.0 0.00
eth.matteljay.mastermindy 14VZcizduTvUTesw4T9yAHZ7GjDDmXZmVs 0.0 0.00
design.codeux.authpass.fdroid 3NcBacCmJbYWpwxj6rWzpM7sx48etMrPtc 0.0 0.00
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de.naturalnet.mirwtfapp 1EAytSwn1u7tKTZ9sMDVCzDqe2nwVf4Pra 0.0 0.00
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de.Cherubin7th.blackscreenpresentationremote 18QSJmV6Liia7Cau65JnEj2JyxEUCGE2oz 0.0 0.00
com.tritop.androsense2 1Dj4Xkz5KtsarmioEKuuZCBVjahr14dih4 0.0 0.00
com.toxtox.philosopherstonewidget 1KvYjRx1VozqUpiYSCMrEL6mo9LvmpCcNN 0.0 0.00
com.sanskritbasics.memory bc1q3xasvfn2c84dprkk2mxj5g7n6ujwylphu8qsf3 0.0 0.00
com.rockbyte.arxiv 1jokQaTneW1KCbCWsMdVtvPv6oSJ1H3tF 0.0 0.00
com.rigid.birthdroid 1BLEeqwXnJJbpaLHiskZ5WyJJRyEWqCAQZ 0.0 0.00
com.readrops.app bc1qlkzlcsvvtn3y6mek5umv5tc4ln09l64x6y42hr 0.0 0.00
com.onetwofivegames.kungfoobarracuda 1MVNsgRmLqgMoEoQu918ozFFiTaepF8Ti5 0.0 0.00
com.mdroid 18BqyV9mNbFLi5HNNnfUprnPJyJDFP59Xh 0.0 0.00
com.mareksebera.simpledilbert 1FpGN3kcZ3GQsaJgBa8rxGRJjBjJavu78g 0.0 0.00
com.marceljurtz.lifecounter 1HDdKd3uoxdvS8pBKKKxEkjoJqUuBiEjkL 0.0 0.00
com.llamacorp.equate 15KCzAPJvSJLUfjuTQgAgSiSwQu6uLiexC 0.0 0.00
com.kn.paper_foss_theme 1CYiRF6AncdNkxcWTRFf5Mxi7UaFhC3jFG 0.0 0.00
com.ideasfrombrain.search_based_launcher_v2 1NapZs8brWNifGk7QFemqTByczdBAAg9cA 0.0 0.00
com.gmail.anubhavdas54.whatsdeleted bc1qs50wst8x53ud5lr80wukhjcy6l7zpxf5mz5rtm 0.0 0.00
com.github.igrmk.smsq 32JdGEVP42WiVxsADa3Z65qn1xe2K7Yg3S 0.0 0.00
com.genonbeta.TrebleShot 1DBsq8aZjn54hnDYsRY7pTLb3HfsE1mSv8 0.0 0.00
com.example.root.analyticaltranslator 15WVb3LZWCsdZGjkNFBuELwt3U4zpnSgwa 0.0 0.00
com.emmanuelmess.simpleaccounting 1HFhPxH9bqMKvs44nHqXjEEPC2m7z1V8tW 0.0 0.00
com.easwareapps.marbleone_ad_free 1PNwD199whFao1rjMX82Zi5A7M5B6KB7be 0.0 0.00
com.easwareapps.g2l 1PNwD199whFao1rjMX82Zi5A7M5B6KB7be 0.0 0.00
com.easwareapps.f2lflap2lock_adfree 1PNwD199whFao1rjMX82Zi5A7M5B6KB7be 0.0 0.00
com.danhasting.radar 1EwgjPGYiChJ5vyBndt9ugzd963FiVc6gj 0.0 0.00
com.atop 15G2T13emQnJRMvA74Zr6Q71bBcaYBn71v 0.0 0.00
com.aptasystems.dicewarepasswordgenerator 1PbHGv88KH6SXw6d66uSFTUzW2aeqxvQ7V 0.0 0.00
com.andreasgift.totalzero 1Q9TinY9kWoNMWuiToHiGC9uxCk6Vd41Gb 0.0 0.00
com.anddevw.getchromium 188RxvRnSXSZZnjuDdLwNirHDfNusVPobh 0.0 0.00
at.tacticaldevc.panictrigger 1EVr5tm2kugffNy3RWPGFoug6X9v3GTxuJ 0.0 0.00
im.vector.riotx 1LxowEgsquZ3UPZ68wHf8v2MDZw82dVmAEa -1.0 -9366.36
im.vector.app 1LxowEgsquZ3UPZ68wHf8v2MDZw82dVmAEa -1.0 -9366.36
I know this is flawed, I found it interesting nonetheless
The post which inspired this: https://www.reddit.com/fossdroid/comments/hyral2/are_there_fossdroid_apps_that_are_making_money/
submitted by prcrst to fossdroid [link] [comments]

What is money?

Hey all, this might be a bit outside of the "Bitcoin" realm, but I wanted to create a sounding board to help me grasp what money is, how it relates to economies, and where Bitcoin can come in. I'm just writing out my thoughts, and I'm open to comments and opinions or corrections :). Hopefully this can be helpful to others too.
Note, that I live in the UK and I feel like a lot of information talks about the dollar, and I never know if it applies the same to my currency. I will give examples in dollars, but they should apply to any world currency (eg. GBP) to the best of my understanding.
I saw a link recently on this subreddit to this site: https://modernmoneybasics.com/. If I were to summarise what I learnt, it is a mental model that frames fiat currency in an interesting way, but I wouldn't be surprised if it did contain some misinformation. -- It claims that the model applies to any fiat currency.
OK. Pretend that all of a countries money = 1. If you own $100, you own a fraction of the countries money, so if there is $10,000 in the world you own 0.001 of all dollars. So naturally, if more money is printed, you start to own a smaller fraction of that money.
The Modern Money Theory (MMT) gives me the impression that money is basically a tool owned by the countries government (owned by someone who isn't the general public). Money is not an asset, it is a liability (hence why it loses value over time). People pay taxes and the Government will try to redistribute the wealth by investing in projects like The Army, Green Energy, etc.
This is supposed to be distributed in ways that help the country's economy, ensuring that the country is productive and is exporting things to other countries. When deemed necessary, more money can be printed to help redistribute wealth to the areas that the Government wants to invest in. I think that the more successful your economy, the more your money is worth.
This means one thing to me; PEOPLE DO NOT OWN/HAVE MONEY. Don't save fiat; it is a tool to help the economy, not a thing of value that you should store. I feel like saving actually keeps money from circulating in the economy and probably works towards needing to print money. Instead, buy assets; you put money back into the economy, and you get to hold onto your wealth. What can you invest in? Ok, that's not such an easy question to answer. Maybe buy gold (or *ahem* Bitcoin), or invest in yourself to make something valuable and ultimately start your own business.
MMT says that fiat has value because people pay taxes in fiat. Ultimately, we work, and earn in order to pay taxes (income, VAT, road tax, etc.). We spend in fiat, because the person accepting fiat will need to pay taxes and the next person will do the same, so now the whole country values your fiat currency.
Because of this, you need liquidity, you need to have some money to spend on groceries and living, and you need some money for a rainy day lest you end up in an emergency situation with not enough time to handle it with money. -- I think the more something costs, the more time you typically will have to pay it, so there might even be a formula you could create or use that helps you decide what to keep as cash, and what to spend.
So long story short, money is a token that represents a tiny fraction of your countries economy. It is also something that the government can manipulate and move around as it pleases in the same way a business invests in departments for its company. We are all just a cog in the machine that is our country's economy.
One thing I have not talked about, is the role of banks and credit and interest. I haven't expanded my thoughts in that area yet, but I feel like that they serve a different purpose.
Where does Bitcoin fit in? Well, just like gold, it is a potential asset. It has an interesting property though; it has liquidity. This give it the potential to be used for local trades, meaning that people can save their wealth and use it for local transactions too. It is global, so it also has the ability to be used for global transactions too. For now, it is an asset for saving your wealth; I think that as more people use it and favour it as a storage mechanism, more people will start to accept it for small trades too. Hey, maybe if there's a tool to easily calculate taxes from Bitcoin trades, that could help with adoption.
What would happen to fiat currency if everyone collected fiat for the sake of paying taxes, but used conversion tools to allow them to keep the majority of their wealth in Bitcoin while knowing the appropriate taxes to pay? Honestly, I fall short here, because at that point, you can no longer measure a country's economy by its currency. This is where I need to maybe learn how countries that do not have their own currency measure their economy.
I suppose governments, or ourselves, will have to invent new ways to measure and manage our economies, and I imagine i will be a much more transparent. I think it is an important question to answer as Bitcoin would shift wealth from being country wealth, to individual wealth (for everyone, not just those with enough income and education to invest in assets).
submitted by tookthisusersoucant to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

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